cspice_subpnt |
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## AbstractCSPICE_SUBPNT computes the rectangular coordinates of the sub-observer point on a target body at a specified epoch, optionally corrected for light time and stellar aberration. The surface of the target body may be represented by a triaxial ellipsoid or by topographic data provided by DSK files. This routine supersedes cspice_subpt, which does not have an input argument for the target body-fixed frame name. ## I/OGiven: method a short string providing parameters defining the computation method to be used. In the syntax descriptions below, items delimited by brackets are optional. [1,c1] = size(method); char = class(method) or [1,1] = size(method); cell = class(method) `method' may be assigned the following values: 'NEAR POINT/ELLIPSOID' The sub-observer point computation uses a triaxial ellipsoid to model the surface of the target body. The sub-observer point is defined as the nearest point on the target relative to the observer. The word 'NADIR' may be substituted for the phrase 'NEAR POINT' in the string above. For backwards compatibility, the older syntax 'Near point: ellipsoid' is accepted as well. 'INTERCEPT/ELLIPSOID' The sub-observer point computation uses a triaxial ellipsoid to model the surface of the target body. The sub-observer point is defined as the target surface intercept of the line containing the observer and the target's center. For backwards compatibility, the older syntax 'Intercept: ellipsoid' is accepted as well. 'NADIR/DSK/UNPRIORITIZED[/SURFACES = <surface list>]' The sub-observer point computation uses DSK data to model the surface of the target body. The sub-observer point is defined as the intercept, on the surface represented by the DSK data, of the line containing the observer and the nearest point on the target's reference ellipsoid. If multiple such intercepts exist, the one closest to the observer is selected. Note that this definition of the sub-observer point is not equivalent to the "nearest point on the surface to the observer." The phrase 'NEAR POINT' may NOT be substituted for 'NADIR' in the string above. The surface list specification is optional. The syntax of the list is <surface 1> [, <surface 2>...] If present, it indicates that data only for the listed surfaces are to be used; however, data need not be available for all surfaces in the list. If absent, loaded DSK data for any surface associated with the target body are used. The surface list may contain surface names or surface ID codes. Names containing blanks must be delimited by double quotes, for example 'SURFACES = "Mars MEGDR 128 PIXEL/DEG"' If multiple surfaces are specified, their names or IDs must be separated by commas. See the Particulars section below for details concerning use of DSK data. 'INTERCEPT/DSK/UNPRIORITIZED[/SURFACES = <surface list>]' The sub-observer point computation uses DSK data to model the surface of the target body. The sub-observer point is defined as the target surface intercept of the line containing the observer and the target's center. If multiple such intercepts exist, the one closest to the observer is selected. The surface list specification is optional. The syntax of the list is identical to that for the NADIR option described above. Neither case nor white space are significant in `method', except within double-quoted strings. For example, the string ' eLLipsoid/nearpoint ' is valid. Within double-quoted strings, blank characters are significant, but multiple consecutive blanks are considered equivalent to a single blank. Case is not significant. So "Mars MEGDR 128 PIXEL/DEG" is equivalent to " mars megdr 128 pixel/deg " but not to "MARS MEGDR128PIXEL/DEG" target the name of the target body. The target body is an ephemeris object (its trajectory is given by SPK data), and is an extended object. [1,c2] = size(target); char = class(target) or [1,1] = size(target); cell = class(target) The string 'target' is case-insensitive, and leading and trailing blanks in 'target' are not significant. Optionally, you may supply a string containing the integer ID code for the object. For example both 'MOON' and '301' are legitimate strings that indicate the moon is the target body. When the target body's surface is represented by a tri-axial ellipsoid, this routine assumes that a kernel variable representing the ellipsoid's radii is present in the kernel pool. Normally the kernel variable would be defined by loading a PCK file. et the epoch(s), expressed as seconds past J2000 TDB, of the observer: 'et' is the epoch at which the observer's state is computed. [1,n] = size(et); double = class(et) When aberration corrections are not used, 'et' is also the epoch at which the position and orientation of the target body are computed. When aberration corrections are used, 'et' is the epoch at which the observer's state relative to the solar system barycenter is computed; in this case the position and orientation of the target body are computed at et-lt or et+lt, where 'lt' is the one-way light time between the sub-observer point and the observer, and the sign applied to 'lt' depends on the selected correction. See the description of 'abcorr' below for details. fixref the name of a body-fixed reference frame centered on the target body. `fixref' may be any such frame supported by the SPICE system, including built-in frames (documented in the Frames Required Reading) and frames defined by a loaded frame kernel (FK). The string `fixref' is case-insensitive, and leading and trailing blanks in `fixref' are not significant. [1,c3] = size(fixref); char = class(fixref) or [1,1] = size(fixref); cell = class(fixref) The output sub-observer point `spoint' and the observer-to-sub-observer point vector `srfvec' will be expressed relative to this reference frame. abcorr the aberration correction to apply when computing the observer-target state and the orientation of the target body. [1,c4] = size(abcorr); char = class(abcorr) or [1,1] = size(abcorr); cell = class(abcorr) For remote sensing applications, where the apparent sub-observer point seen by the observer is desired, normally either of the corrections 'LT+S' 'CN+S' should be used. These and the other supported options are described below. 'abcorr' may be any of the following: 'NONE' Apply no correction. Return the geometric sub-observer point on the target body. Let 'lt' represent the one-way light time between the observer and the sub-observer point (note: NOT between the observer and the target body's center). The following values of 'abcorr' apply to the "reception" case in which photons depart from the sub-observer point's location at the light-time corrected epoch et-lt and *arrive* at the observer's location at 'et': 'LT' Correct for one-way light time (also called "planetary aberration") using a Newtonian formulation. This correction yields the location of sub-observer point at the moment it emitted photons arriving at the observer at 'et'. The light time correction uses an iterative solution of the light time equation. The solution invoked by the 'LT' option uses one iteration. Both the target position as seen by the observer, and rotation of the target body, are corrected for light time. 'LT+S' Correct for one-way light time and stellar aberration using a Newtonian formulation. This option modifies the state obtained with the 'LT' option to account for the observer's velocity relative to the solar system barycenter. The result is the apparent sub-observer point as seen by the observer. 'CN' Converged Newtonian light time correction. In solving the light time equation, the 'CN' correction iterates until the solution converges. Both the position and rotation of the target body are corrected for light time. 'CN+S' Converged Newtonian light time and stellar aberration corrections. This option produces a solution that is at least as accurate at that obtainable with the 'LT+S' option. Whether the 'CN+S' solution is substantially more accurate depends on the geometry of the participating objects and on the accuracy of the input data. In all cases this routine will execute more slowly when a converged solution is computed. The following values of 'abcorr' apply to the "transmission" case in which photons *depart* from the observer's location at 'et' and arrive at the sub-observer point at the light-time corrected epoch et+lt: 'XLT' "Transmission" case: correct for one-way light time using a Newtonian formulation. This correction yields the sub-observer location at the moment it receives photons emitted from the observer's location at 'et'. The light time correction uses an iterative solution of the light time equation. The solution invoked by the 'LT' option uses one iteration. Both the target position as seen by the observer, and rotation of the target body, are corrected for light time. 'XLT+S' "Transmission" case: correct for one-way light time and stellar aberration using a Newtonian formulation This option modifies the sub-observer point obtained with the 'XLT' option to account for the observer's velocity relative to the solar system barycenter. 'XCN' Converged Newtonian light time correction. This is the same as XLT correction but with further iterations to a converged Newtonian light time solution. 'XCN+S' "Transmission" case: converged Newtonian light time and stellar aberration corrections. obsrvr the name of the observing body. The observing body is an ephemeris object: it typically is a spacecraft, the earth, or a surface point on the earth. 'obsrvr' is case-insensitive, and leading and 'obsrvr' are not significant. Optionally, you may trailing blanks in supply a string containing the integer ID code for the object. For example both 'MOON' and '301' are legitimate strings that indicate the Moon is the observer. [1,c5] = size(obsrvr); char = class(obsrvr) or [1,1] = size(obsrvr); cell = class(obsrvr) the call: [spoint, trgepc, srfvec] = ## ExamplesAny numerical results shown for this example may differ between platforms as the results depend on the SPICE kernels used as input and the machine specific arithmetic implementation. Find the sub-Earth point on Mars for a specified time. Perform the computation twice, using both the "intercept" and "near point" options. Display the location of both the Earth and the sub-Earth point using both planetocentric and planetographic coordinates. % % Load kernel files via the meta-kernel. % cspice_furnsh( '/kernels/standard.tm' ); % % Convert the UTC request time to ET (seconds past % J2000, TDB). % et0 = cspice_str2et( '2008 aug 11 00:00:00' ); % % Create a vector of times. The code will also run for 'et' % a scalar. % et = [0:10]*cspice_spd + et0; % % Look up the target body's radii. We'll use these to % convert Cartesian to planetodetic coordinates. Use % the radii to compute the flattening coefficient of % the reference ellipsoid. % radii = cspice_bodvrd( 'MARS', 'RADII', 3 ); % % Let RE and RP be, respectively, the equatorial and % polar radii of the target. % re = radii(1); rp = radii(3); f = ( re-rp)/re; % % Compute sub-observer point using light time and stellar % aberration corrections. Use the "target surface intercept" % definition of the sub-observer point on the first loop % iteration, and use the "near point" definition on the % second. % method = { 'Intercept: ellipsoid', 'Near point: ellipsoid' }; for i=1:2 [spoint, trgepc, srfvec] = ## ParticularsA sister version of this routine exists named mice_subpnt that returns the output arguments as fields in a single structure. For ellipsoidal target bodies, there are two different popular ways to define the sub-observer point: "nearest point on the target to the observer" or "target surface intercept of the line containing observer and target." These coincide when the target is spherical and generally are distinct otherwise. For target body shapes modeled using topographic data provided by DSK files, the "surface intercept" notion is valid, but the "nearest point on the surface" computation is both inefficient to execute and may fail to yield a result that is "under" the observer in an intuitively clear way. The NADIR option for DSK shapes instead finds the surface intercept of a ray that passes through the nearest point on the target reference ellipsoid. For shapes modeled using topography, there may be multiple ray-surface intercepts; the closest one to the observer is selected. The NADIR definition makes sense only if the target shape is reasonably close to the target's reference ellipsoid. If the target is very different---the nucleus of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko is an example---the intercept definition should be used. This routine computes light time corrections using light time between the observer and the sub-observer point, as opposed to the center of the target. Similarly, stellar aberration corrections done by this routine are based on the direction of the vector from the observer to the light-time corrected sub-observer point, not to the target center. This technique avoids errors due to the differential between aberration corrections across the target body. Therefore it's valid to use aberration corrections with this routine even when the observer is very close to the sub-observer point, in particular when the observer to sub-observer point distance is much less than the observer to target center distance. When comparing sub-observer point computations with results from sources other than SPICE, it's essential to make sure the same geometric definitions are used. Using DSK data ============== DSK loading and unloading ------------------------- DSK files providing data used by this routine are loaded by calling cspice_furnsh and can be unloaded by calling cspice_unload or cspice_kclear. See the documentation of cspice_furnsh for limits on numbers of loaded DSK files. For run-time efficiency, it's desirable to avoid frequent loading and unloading of DSK files. When there is a reason to use multiple versions of data for a given target body---for example, if topographic data at varying resolutions are to be used---the surface list can be used to select DSK data to be used for a given computation. It is not necessary to unload the data that are not to be used. This recommendation presumes that DSKs containing different versions of surface data for a given body have different surface ID codes. DSK data priority ----------------- A DSK coverage overlap occurs when two segments in loaded DSK files cover part or all of the same domain---for example, a given longitude-latitude rectangle---and when the time intervals of the segments overlap as well. When DSK data selection is prioritized, in case of a coverage overlap, if the two competing segments are in different DSK files, the segment in the DSK file loaded last takes precedence. If the two segments are in the same file, the segment located closer to the end of the file takes precedence. When DSK data selection is unprioritized, data from competing segments are combined. For example, if two competing segments both represent a surface as sets of triangular plates, the union of those sets of plates is considered to represent the surface. Currently only unprioritized data selection is supported. Because prioritized data selection may be the default behavior in a later version of the routine, the UNPRIORITIZED keyword is required in the `method' argument. Syntax of the `method' input argument ----------------------------------- The keywords and surface list in the `method' argument are called "clauses." The clauses may appear in any order, for example 'NADIR/DSK/UNPRIORITIZED/<surface list>' 'DSK/NADIR/<surface list>/UNPRIORITIZED' 'UNPRIORITIZED/<surface list>/DSK/NADIR' The simplest form of the `method' argument specifying use of DSK data is one that lacks a surface list, for example: 'NADIR/DSK/UNPRIORITIZED' 'INTERCEPT/DSK/UNPRIORITIZED' For applications in which all loaded DSK data for the target body are for a single surface, and there are no competing segments, the above strings suffice. This is expected to be the usual case. When, for the specified target body, there are loaded DSK files providing data for multiple surfaces for that body, the surfaces to be used by this routine for a given call must be specified in a surface list, unless data from all of the surfaces are to be used together. The surface list consists of the string 'SURFACES = ' followed by a comma-separated list of one or more surface identifiers. The identifiers may be names or integer codes in string format. For example, suppose we have the surface names and corresponding ID codes shown below: Surface Name ID code ------------ ------- "Mars MEGDR 128 PIXEL/DEG" 1 "Mars MEGDR 64 PIXEL/DEG" 2 "Mars_MRO_HIRISE" 3 If data for all of the above surfaces are loaded, then data for surface 1 can be specified by either 'SURFACES = 1' or 'SURFACES = "Mars MEGDR 128 PIXEL/DEG"' Double quotes are used to delimit the surface name because it contains blank characters. To use data for surfaces 2 and 3 together, any of the following surface lists could be used: 'SURFACES = 2, 3' 'SURFACES = "Mars MEGDR 64 PIXEL/DEG", 3' 'SURFACES = 2, Mars_MRO_HIRISE' 'SURFACES = "Mars MEGDR 64 PIXEL/DEG", Mars_MRO_HIRISE' An example of a `method' argument that could be constructed using one of the surface lists above is 'NADIR/DSK/UNPRIORITIZED/SURFACES= "Mars MEGDR 64 PIXEL/DEG",3' Aberration corrections ---------------------- For irregularly shaped target bodies, the distance between the observer and the nearest surface intercept need not be a continuous function of time; hence the one-way light time between the intercept and the observer may be discontinuous as well. In such cases, the computed light time, which is found using iterative algorithm, may converge slowly or not at all. In all cases, the light time computation will terminate, but the result may be less accurate than expected. ## Required ReadingFor important details concerning this module's function, please refer to the CSPICE routine subpnt_c. MICE.REQ DSK.REQ FRAMES.REQ PCK.REQ SPK.REQ TIME.REQ ## Version-Mice Version 2.0.0, 04-APR-2017, EDW (JPL), NJB (JPL) Header update to reflect support for use of DSKs. Vectorized interface on input 'et'. Edited I/O section to conform to NAIF standard for Mice documentation. -Mice Version 1.0.2, 25-OCT-2011, SCK (JPL) References to the new 'cspice_pxfrm2' routine were added to the 'I/O returns' section. -Mice Version 1.0.1, 12-MAY-2009, EDW (JPL) Corrected type in I/O call description. The call description lacked the 'fixref' argument. -Mice Version 1.0.0, 30-JAN-2008, EDW (JPL) ## Index_Entriesfind sub-observer point on target body find sub-spacecraft point on target body find nearest point to observer on target body |

Wed Apr 5 18:00:35 2017