Mice Required Reading 
Table of ContentsMice Required Reading Abstract Contact Mailing List Design Concept Mice Benefits Mice Functionality Platforms Distribution Builds Build Problems Directory Structure Using Mice Preparing the Environment First Test of Mice Installation Documentation Documentation Conventions The Mice API Path names API Functionality Wrapper Types: mice_x.m, cspice_x.m Return of Integer Values as Double Use of Vectorized Arguments Vectorizing a Numeric Scalar Vectorizing a Numeric Vector Vectorizing a Structure Vectorizing a Numeric Matrix Vectorizing a String SPICE Windows, Planes, and Ellipses in Mice SPICE Windows in Mice SPICE Ellipses in Mice SPICE Planes in Mice Mice Implementation of the SPICE Exception Subsystem Error Response No Loaded leapseconds kernel No Loaded SPKs Error Response from Vectorized Routines Command Format Error Error Handling Correlation Between Mice and Matlab Matlab vs. CSPICE Functionality Use of Mice with Octave Common problems Persistence of Kernel Data Defining Kernel Names with Relative Paths Use on 32bit vs 64bit Platforms Revisions Mice Required Reading
Abstract
Contact
Mailing List
http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/mailman/listinfo/mice_discussion Design Concept
Mice uses the Matlab external interface functionality (MEX) to provide Matlab users access to selected CSPICE routines from within Matlab. A user need only install the interface library and the interface wrapper files to gain use of these functions. Matlab interfaces exist for a subset of the CSPICE wrappers, those routines with name style "routine_c", with "routine" the name of the CSPICE module. The Mice interfaces tend to be the "commonly used" routines involved with kernel data access, time conversion, and geometry calculations. Refer to the CSPICE required reading document (cspice.req) for information concerning CSPICE. Mice passes data from the Matlab environment to the CSPICE library, so a Mice interface call performs few operations other than recasting input from Matlab into CSPICE form and recasting CSPICE output to Matlab form for return. Conforming to Matlab norms, Mice uses base 1 array indices (as is logical). NAIF employs the ANSI C standard when writing Matlab/CSPICE interface source code. For each platform, Mice uses the same binary and text kernels as the Fortran, C, and IDL Toolkit for that platform. Mice Benefits
Mice Functionality
Platforms
http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/naif/toolkit_Matlab.htmland in the intro_to_toolkit tutorial also available from the NAIF website. Distribution
The Mice toolkit comprises the full CSPICE distribution (source, documentation, libraries, executables) plus the Mice source code, associated build files, and Mice documentation. A user without a Matlab installation cannot use the Mice interface. NAIF expects Matlab version 7.2 (R2006a) or later for Mice use. Note: You do not need a C compiler to use Mice. You need a C compiler to rebuild Mice. Builds
The build system on Unix/Linux platforms uses the Mathworks supplied "mex" script and NAIF edited mexopts.sh option file. The mexopts.sh file defines the parameters used by the mex script to compile the library. This file must exist in the Mice source directory:
/path_to_mice/mice/src/miceThe build procedure on a Windows platform does not use a mexopts file. Build Problems
Also ensure your path includes the Matlab "mex" script and not some other version of "mex." Directory Structure
mice/   data/ doc/ etc/ exe/ include/ lib/ src/ makeall.csh(.bat)       html/ *.req *. ug ...  mice/ cspice/ ...         mice.c index.html cspice/ mice/ ...  cspice_*.m   mice_*.m   *.h index.html  *.c cspice_*.html  mexopts.sh mice_*.html    cspice.a csupport.a mice.mex*The makeall.csh (makeall.bat) file is a master build script specific to the platform architecture. Using MicePreparing the Environment
The inclusion of the Mice directories to the Matlab search path can be done programmatically:
>> addpath('/path_to_mice/mice/src/mice/') >> addpath('/path_to_mice/mice/lib/' )or
>> addpath('c:\path_to_mice\mice\src\mice\') >> addpath('c:\path_to_mice\mice\lib\' )A user can also add the Mice directories to the Matlab search path by setting the MATLABPATH environment variable.
setenv MATLABPATH /path_to_mice/mice/src/mice/When a user invokes a call to a Mice function:
1. Matlab calls ... 2. the function's wrapper, which calls ... 3. the Mice MEX shared object library, which performs its function then returns the result ... 4. to the wrapper, which ... 5. returns the result to the userA transparent procedure from the user's perspective. First Test of Mice Installation
>> which miceMatlab should return the path to the mice.mex* file if the file exists within a directory searched by Matlab.
/path_to_mice/mice/lib/mice.mexmacIf Matlab outputs
'mice' not found.then the Matlab search path does not include the directory containing the mice.mex* file. The Matlab command:
>> cspice_tkvrsn('toolkit')causes Matlab to display the string identifier for the CSPICE library version (N00XX) against which Mice linked. Documentation
The index.html file in the
mice/doc/htmlor
mice\doc\htmlsubdirectory is the Mice HTML documentation "homepage." The page provides links to the CSPICE and Mice API descriptions. Documentation Conventions
Argument type Format Example    string back ticks cspice_furnsh( `file` ) array of (N) [out1, out2] = cspice_function(arr(N)) size NX1 array of (N,M) [out1, out2] = cspice_function(arr(N,M)) size NXM return an () [values()] = cspice_bodvrd(`body`, ... Nx1 array `item`, ... of arbitrary maxn) size 'N' vectorized underscore [_et_] = cspice_str2et(_`str`_) argument optional brackets [ids] = cspice_spkobj( _`spk`_, ... input deliminating size, ... input arg [ids_i] ) The Mice API
output = name( inputs )Those routines returning multiple arguments on output do so in the expected Matlab manner:
[output1, output2, ...] = name( inputs )A set of Matlab *.m wrapper files provides user access to the MEX library. The *.m files include Matlab specific versions of the corresponding CSPICE wrapper's header describing the use and implementation of the call. Theses headers also include example code. The Matlab "help" command outputs the wrapper headers, e.g.:
>> help cspice_spkezr Abstract CSPICE_SPKEZR returns the state (position and velocity) of a target body relative to an observing body, optionally corrected for light time (planetary aberration) and stellar aberration. ... Path names
API Functionality
>> v = [ 1; 2; 3] v = 1 2 3 >> size(v) ans = 3 1"size" shows 'v' as a 3x1 array. Mice also checks the dimensionality of input vectors and matrices, i.e. an API expecting a double precision 3x1 array as input signals an error for any other data type or dimensionality.
>> v = [ 1; 2; 3; 4] v = 1 2 3 4 >> [r, lon, z] = cspice_reccyl(v) ??? MICE(BADARG): Input argument (`rectan') must be an 3x1 vector or a vectorized vector (3xN). Wrapper Types: mice_x.m, cspice_x.m
spkezr_c( targ, et, ref, abcorr, obs, state, < );The corresponding cspice_spkezr call:
[state, lt] = cspice_spkezr(targ, et, ref, abcorr, obs)The corresponding mice_spkezr call:
traj = mice_spkezr(targ, et, ref, abcorr, obs)The two calls return the same data with the cspice_spkezr version returning separate arguments, while the mice_spkezr returns a structure composed of two fields, "state" (traj.state) and "lt" (traj.lt). Return of Integer Values as Double
"For all binary operations in which one operand is an array of integer data type and the other is a scalar double, Matlab computes the operation using elementwise doubleprecision arithmetic, and then converts the result back to the original integer data type."Due to this implementation, Mice interfaces return/cast as double those integer arguments a user might later include in a calculation. Use of Vectorized Arguments
Vectorizing a Numeric Scalar
>> COUNT = 5; >> et = [1:COUNT] * cspice_spd * 5. et = 432000 864000 1296000 1728000 2160000 >> size( et ) ans = 1 5 Vectorizing a Numeric Vector
>> [state,lt] = cspice_spkezr( 'MOON', ... et, ... 'J2000', ... 'NONE' , ... 'EARTH' ); >> size( state ) ans = 6 5 Vectorizing a Structure
>> traj = mice_spkezr( 'MOON' , ... et , ... 'J2000', ... 'LT+S' , ... 'EARTH' ); >> size(traj) ans = 1 5 Vectorizing a Numeric Matrix
>> xform = cspice_pxform( 'J2000', 'IAU_MOON', et(1) ); >> size(xform) ans = 3 3A vectorized numeric NxM array has dimension NxMxCOUNT.
>> xform = cspice_pxform( 'J2000', 'IAU_MOON', et ); >> size(xform) ans = 3 3 5In this case, vectorized use returns 5 3x3 transformation matrices. To access the ith matrix:
xform_i = xform(:,:,i) Vectorizing a String
>> utc = cspice_et2utc( et(1), 'C', 5 ) utc = 2000 JAN 06 11:58:55.81593 >> size( utc ) ans = 1 26A vector of strings has dimension COUNTxLENGTH.
>> utc = cspice_et2utc( et, 'C', 5 ) utc = 2000 JAN 06 11:58:55.81593 2000 JAN 11 11:58:55.81578 2000 JAN 16 11:58:55.81564 2000 JAN 21 11:58:55.81550 2000 JAN 26 11:58:55.81537 >> size( utc ) ans = 5 26 >> et1 = cspice_str2et( utc ) et1 = 1.0e+06 * 0.4320 0.8640 1.2960 1.7280 2.1600Mice string input arguments also accept a cell of strings. Note, all string outputs return as NxM character arrays.
>> utc1 = cellstr( utc ) utc1 = '2000 JAN 06 11:58:55.81593' '2000 JAN 11 11:58:55.81578' '2000 JAN 16 11:58:55.81564' '2000 JAN 21 11:58:55.81550' '2000 JAN 26 11:58:55.81537' >> size( utc1 ) ans = 5 1 >> et2 = cspice_str2et( utc1 ) et2 = 1.0e+06 * 0.4320 0.8640 1.2960 1.7280 2.1600When processing vectorized input arguments, Mice confirms all vectorized inputs have the same measure of vectorization. Mice signals an error when inputs do not agree with regard to the measure.
>> range = [ 1., 2., 3. ] range = 1 2 3 >> dec = [ 0., 0.1 ] dec = 0 0.1000 >> ra = [ 0., 0.75, 1.5 ] ra = 0 0.7500 1.5000 >> rectan = cspice_radrec( range, ra, dec) ??? MICE(BADARG): Input argument 3 (`dec') must have same length as `range'Please consult the API documentation for details on a particular routine's argument set. SPICE Windows, Planes, and Ellipses in MiceSPICE Windows in Mice
Refer to the Windows Required Reading document, windows.req, for specific information on the implementation of windows in Mice. SPICE Ellipses in Mice
center: {3x1 ARRAY, DOUBLE PRECISION} semiMajor: {3x1 ARRAY, DOUBLE PRECISION} semiMinor: {3x1 ARRAY, DOUBLE PRECISION} ellipse.center = [ cnt1, cnt2, cnt3 ]'; ellipse.semimajor = [ smj1, smj2, smj3 ]'; ellipse.semiminor = [ smn1, smn2, smn3 ]'; SPICE Planes in Mice
normal: {3x1 ARRAY, DOUBLE PRECISION} constant: {SCALAR, DOUBLE PRECISION} plane.normal = [ n1, n2, n3 ]'; plane.constant = x; Mice Implementation of the SPICE Exception Subsystem
Error Response
??? Undefined function or variable 'mice'.SPICE programmers often encounter two errors, regardless of the programming language. Both errors result from the failure to load the needed SPICE kernels prior to an evaluation involving time conversion or a state lookup. No Loaded leapseconds kernel
>> et = cspice_str2et( 'Jan 1, 2000' ); ??? SPICE(NOLEAPSECONDS): [str2et_c>STR2ET>TTRANS] The variable that points to the leapseconds (DELTET/DELTA_AT) could not be located in the kernel pool. It is likely that the leapseconds kernel has not been loaded via the routine FURNSH. No Loaded SPKs
>> [state, ltime] = cspice_spkezr( 'MOON', 0., 'J2000', ... 'NONE', 'EARTH' ); ??? SPICE(NOLOADEDFILES): [spkezr_c>SPKEZR>SPKEZ>SPKGEO >SPKSFS] At least one SPK file needs to be loaded by SPKLEF before beginning a search.All SPICE errors passed back to Matlab have the format shown: the SPICE(*) short error message; in brackets, the traceback of the call sequence that led to the error; the long error message. Error Response from Vectorized Routines
>> et = cspice_str2et( '2050 JAN 30' ); >> [state, ltime] = cspice_spkezr( 'MOON' , ... et , ... 'J2000', ... 'LT+S' , ... 'EARTH' ) ??? SPICE(SPKINSUFFDATA): [spkezr_c>SPKEZR>SPKEZ>SPKSSB>SPKGEO] Insufficient ephemeris data has been loaded to compute the state of 399 (EARTH) relative to 0 (SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER) at the ephemeris epoch 2050 JAN 30 00:01:04.184.The same error when using a vectorized 'et':
>> et0 = cspice_str2et( '2049 DEC 30' ); >> et = [0:1000000] + et0; >> [state, ltime] = cspice_spkezr( 'MOON' , ... et , ... 'J2000', ... 'LT+S' , ... 'EARTH' ) ??? SPICE(SPKINSUFFDATA): [spkezr_c>SPKEZR>SPKEZ>SPKACS>SPKGEO] Insufficient ephemeris data has been loaded to compute the state of 399 (EARTH) relative to 0 (SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER) at the ephemeris epoch 2050 JAN 01 00:01:05.183. Failure occurred at input vector index 172800.The "Failure occurred at input vector index ..." string appears only when using vectorized arguments. The element value refers to the vector index at which the failure occurred. In this case, the kernel system lacked data to perform the state evaluation at time value et(172800). Command Format Error
>> cspice_et2utc ??? Error using ==> cspice_et2utc Usage: [_`utcstr`_] = cspice_et2utc(_et_, `format`, prec) Error Handling
% % Make a call to an interface function. Wrap the % call in a try/catch block. % try [output1, output2, ...] = cspice_function( input1, input2, ...) catch % % If an error occurred, retrieve that string % from 'lasterr'. Output the error string. % disp( lasterr ) endUse of try...catch...end grants the user control over the error response from the CSPICE routines. Example: Attempt to return a state without loading kernels.
% % Wrap cspice_spkezr in a try...catch block. % try [state, ltime] = cspice_spkezr( 'MOON' , ... 0. , ... 'J2000', ... 'LT+S' , ... 'EARTH' ) catch % % Check for an error response. Print the message if found. % disp( lasterr ) end % % Continue program execution. % ...The output displays the expected message:
SPICE(NOLOADEDFILES): [spkezr_c>SPKEZR>SPKEZ>SPKSSB>SPKGEO> SPKSFS] At least one SPK file needs to be loaded by SPKLEF before beginning a search. Correlation Between Mice and MatlabMatlab vs. CSPICE Functionality
CSPICE Native Matlab Description    mtxm_c m1' * m2 Matrix transpose times matrix, 3x3 mtxmg_c m1' * m2 Matrix transpose times matrix (general dim.) mtxv_c m1' * v1 Matrix transpose times vector, 3x3 mtxvg_c m1' * v1 Matrix transpose times vector (general dim.) mxm_c m1 * m2 Matrix times matrix, 3x3 mxmg_c m1 * m2 Matrix times matrix (general dim.) mxmt_c m1 * m2' Matrix times matrix transpose, 3x3 mxmtg_c m1 * m2' Matrix times matrix transpose (general dim.) mxv_c m1 * v1 Matrix times vector, 3x3 mxvg_c m1 * v1 Matrix times vector (general dim.) vadd_c v1 + v2 Vector addition, 3 dimensional vaddg_c v1 + v2 Vector addition (general dim.) vcrss_c cross(v1, v2) Vector cross product, 3 dimensions vdist_c norm(v1  v2) Vector distance vdistg_c norm(v1  v2) Vector distance (general dim.) vdot_c dot(v1, v2) Vector dot product, 3 dimensions vdotg_c dot(v1, v2) Vector dot product (general dim.) vequ_c v2 = v1 Vector equality, 3 dimensions vequg_c v2 = v1 Vector equality (general dim.) vhat_c v1/norm(v1) "VHat", unit vector along V, 3 dimensions vhatg_c v1/norm(v1) "VHat", unit vector along V (general dim.) vlcom3_c a*v1 + b*v2 + c*v3 Vector linear combination, 3 dimensions vlcom_c a*v1 + b*v2 Vector linear combination, 3 dimensions vlcomg_c a*v1 + b*v2 Vector linear combination (general dim.) vminug_c v1 Minus V, "V" (general dim.) vminus_c v1 Minus V, "V", 3 dimensions vnorm_c norm(v1) Vector norm, 3 dimensions vnormg_c norm(v1) Vector norm (general dim.) vpack_c v1 = [x, y, z]' Pack three scalar components into a vector vscl_c s * v1 Vector scaling, 3 dimensions vsclg_c s * v1 Vector scaling (general dim.) vsub_c v1  v2 Vector subtraction, 3 dimensions vsubg_c v1  v2 Vector subtraction (general dim.) vtmv_c v1' * m1 * v2 Vector transpose times matrix times vector, 3 dim vtmvg_c v1' * m1 * v2 Vector transpose times matrix times vector (general dim.) vupack_c x = v1(1) Unpack three scalar components from y = v1(2) a vector z = v1(3) vzero_c all( v1 == 0 ) Is a vector the zero vector? vzerog_c all( v2 == 0 ) Is a vector the zero vector? (general dim.) Use of Mice with Octave
Note that use of Mice with a 32bit Octave requires a 32bit Mice Toolkit; the same for 64bit. To build the CSPICEoctave interface, several minor modifications are required to the cspice build script. Copy the mice/src/cspice/ mkprodct.csh script to mice/src/cspice/mkprodct_mix.csh. For example, based on a 32bit Mice for Linux or OS X, edit mkprodct_mix.csh: Add the option DMIX_C_AND_FORTRAN to the TKCOMPILEOPTIONS variable assignment, i.e. change: set TKCOMPILEOPTIONS = "c ansi Wall O2 fPIC DNON_UNIX_STDIO m32" to set TKCOMPILEOPTIONS = "c ansi Wall O2 fPIC DNON_UNIX_STDIO m32 DMIX_C_AND_FORTRAN" Do not otherwise change the option list assigned to TKCOMPILEOPTIONS. Modify the LIBRARY assignment so that the script produces a library named "cspice_mix.a", i.e. change set LIBRARY = "../../lib/"$item:t to set LIBRARY = "../../lib/"$item:t"_mix" Once complete, set the script to executable, then execute (from the mice/src/cspice directory) the "mkprodct_mix.csh" script. The run should create "cspice_mix.a" in the "mice/lib" directory. Create a subdirectory named "octave" in the mice/lib directory. Create in the mice/src/mice directory a build script, "mkprodct_octave.csh". Copy the csh script listed below to "mkprodct_octave.csh". Edit the "OCTAVE" bin directory path as needed.
#!/bin/csh f echo echo Building octave interface to CSPICE using the NAIF Mice code echo base. Warning: this interface is experimental and not an echo official NAIF product. echo # # Set the directory containing the "mkoctfile" executable (installed # with octave). This path is based on the octave install directory. # set OCTAVE=/local/bin # # v Verbose mode, output compile, link command (use if needed) # c Compile to object code # mex Compile code based on the Matlab environment MEX # # # Compile the Mice source files for octave use. # $OCTAVE/mkoctfile mex c I../../include mice.c DOCTAVE $OCTAVE/mkoctfile mex c I../../include zzmice.c $OCTAVE/mkoctfile mex c I../../include zzmice_CreateIntScalar.c # # Link the source files to an extension library. Use the "mixed" # version of the CSPICE library. # $OCTAVE/mkoctfile mex o mice.mex \ mice.o \ zzmice.o \ zzmice_CreateIntScalar.o \ ../../lib/cspice_mix.a # # Cleanup and move the library to the expected directory, # lib/octave. # \rm *.o \mv mice.mex ../../lib/octave/mice.mexOnce complete, set the script to executable, then execute (from the mice/src/mice directory) the "mkprodct_octave.csh" script. The run should create "mice.mex" in the "mice/lib/octave" directory. Octave command syntax and grammar matches Matlab (in most cases). Use the "addpath" command to access the interface from octave:
addpath( '/path_to_mice/mice/lib/octave' ) addpath( '/path_to_mice/mice/src/mice' ) Common problemsPersistence of Kernel Data
The CSPICE design supposes use in a single program runtime environment; the program accomplishes its function, then quits. With respect to Mice, consider the Matlab environment as a single program run. Since Mice functions as an extension to Matlab, loaded kernels and opened files remain in memory after a script runs unless explicitly unloaded or closed (a script is not the program, Matlab is the program). Consequence: kernel data may be available to one of your scripts even though not intended to be so. You could get incorrect or unexpected results! Two approaches mitigate this issue. Load all needed SPICE kernels for your Matlab session at the beginning of the session, paying careful attention to the files loaded and the loading order (loading order affects precedence). Or, either unload unneeded kernels with cspice_unload, or clear all loaded kernels and kernel pool variables with cspice_kclear, at the end of the Matlab script to avoid both exceeding the maximum number of allowed loaded kernels and providing unintended access to kernel data. Defining Kernel Names with Relative Paths
Prevent this problem by:
Use on 32bit vs 64bit Platforms
??? Undefined function or method 'mice' for input arguments of ... Revisions
Added procedure instructions to create a CSPICE interface to the Octave environment, based on the Mice source code. 2010 MAR 15 by E. D. Wright. Previous edits.
