Index Page
NAIF Integer ID codes

Table of Contents

   NAIF Integer ID codes
      Use of Code-to-Name/Name-to-Code Mappings from SPICE
         Use of an External Mapping Definition Kernel
      NAIF Object ID numbers
         Planets and Satellites
         Earth Orbiting Spacecraft.
         Comet Shoemaker Levy 9
         Ground Stations.
         Inertial and Non-inertial Reference Frames
      Spacecraft Clocks.


NAIF Integer ID codes



Last revised on 2021 DEC 10 by E. D. Wright.

This version of the document supersedes all previous versions.



The NAIF IDS Required Reading lists all default body ID-name mappings for the SPICE toolkits and a description of functionality of the corresponding software.



SPICE system kernels and routines refer to ephemeris objects, reference frames, and instruments by integer codes, usually referred as the ID.

The reference frame ID-name mappings routines constitute a subsystem separate from the body ID-name mapping routines. Please refer to the Frames Required Reading document (frames.req) for specific information.

Likewise, the surface ID-name mappings routines constitute a subsystem separate from the body ID-name mapping routines. Please refer to the DSK Required Reading document (dsk.req) for specific information.

An ephemeris object is any object that may have ephemeris or trajectory data such as a planet, natural satellite, tracking station, spacecraft, barycenter (the center of mass of a group of bodies), asteroid, or comet. Each body in the solar system is associated with an integer code for use with SPICE. The names and codes for many of these objects are listed below.

Spacecraft ID codes are negative. These ID codes are usually derived from NASA control authority assignments. Instruments mounted on spacecraft also have ID codes. These are determined by multiplying the spacecraft ID by 1000 and subtracting the ordinal number of the instrument from the resulting product. Thus we can algorithmically recover the spacecraft code from an instrument code, and each instrument may have a unique code as long as there are 999 or fewer on a spacecraft.

Caution: the NASA spacecraft ID control authority at GSFC is forced into reusing some IDs. This can affect the SPICE system for planetary or other spacecraft for which ID-name mappings are registered. (Here "registered" means a spacecraft for which use of the SPICE system is an actuality, or was contemplated.) Three cases exist.

    1. This document and ID-to-name mapping software include both past and current ID-name mappings for cases where both the old and the new ID assignments are for spacecraft registered within SPICE. The last mentioned ID-to-name mapping in this document is the one that will be used in SPICE software to effect ID-to-name translations within SPICE-based code.

    2. This document and ID-to-name mapping software contain only a mapping for the current use of a given ID if prior uses involved spacecraft never registered with SPICE (e.g. many non-planetary missions).

    3. This document and ID-to-name mapping software contain only a mapping for a prior use of a given ID if that prior use was for a spacecraft registered within SPICE and current use of the ID is for a spacecraft not registered within SPICE.

For spacecraft the ID-to-name mapping may be a one-to-many mapping, allowing two or more names for a spacecraft to exist for a single numeric ID. The last mentioned ID-to-name mapping in this document is the one that will be used in SPICE software to effect ID-to-name translations within SPICE-based code.

As the reader will see, ID codes now show the wear that results from an expanding system. As the SPICE system has expanded so has the number of objects that require identifying codes. Many of these objects do not fit neatly into the schemes originally envisioned as needing ID codes. As a result, the current system is a bit eclectic.


Use of Code-to-Name/Name-to-Code Mappings from SPICE

Software exists within the SPICE system that allows a user to easily map between an integer code and the object name that code represents or vice-versa.

BODC2N performs the integer code to name mapping; input a code, the routine returns the corresponding name:

BODN2C performs the name to integer code mapping; input a name, the routine returns the corresponding ID code:

BODDEF performs a run-time assignment of a name/code mapping for later translation by BODC2N and BODN2C:

with NAME defining the character string associated with integer CODE. When using BODN2C, the NAME look-up is case insensitive, left justified, and space compressed (multiple spaces between words reduced to one) format. Spaces between words are significant.

      These strings are equivalent:
         'EARTH', '  Earth ', 'earth  '
      As well as:
         'Solar System Barycenter', 'SOLAR  System  barycenter'
      is not due to the lack of spaces between words.
The boolean FOUND has value true if a mapping look-up succeeded, false otherwise.


Use of an External Mapping Definition Kernel

If necessary, a user may elect to load additional name-ID pairs for access by SPICE software. These pairs may be new definitions, or they may override the default mapping assignment.

Create new name-ID pairs With a text kernel such as

      Define an additional set of body, ID code mappings.
      NAIF_BODY_CODE  += ( 22, 23, 24, 25 )
      NAIF_BODY_NAME  += ( 'LARRY', 'MOE', 'CURLEY', 'SHEMP' )
Load the kernel as usual with a FURNSH call. The names defined in NAIF_BODY_NAME map to the corresponding index of NAIF_BODY_CODE, i.e. LARRY->22, MOE->23, etc, and the IDs in NAIF_BODY_CODE map to the corresponding index of NAIF_BODY_NAME.

If an external ID kernel is used, be aware of several rules:

    1. All ID codes MUST be listed in the kernel variable NAIF_BODY_CODE, and all names MUST be listed in the kernel variable NAIF_BODY_NAME.

    2. The SPICE system can access 14983 external name-ID pairs defined via a text kernel. SPICE signals an error when the number of assignments exceeds 14983.

    3. Names must be no longer than 36 characters. SPICE truncates characters beyond 36th without signaling an error.

    4. You may assign an ID code to multiple names. A BODC2N call returns the last name assigned; a last in, first out situation.

Since NAIF_BODY_CODE and NAIF_BODY_NAME are kernel variables, use of the "+=" notation in the previous example means the values are appended to the mapping set present in memory. For example, the block:

      NAIF_BODY_CODE  += ( 170100, 170101 )
      NAIF_BODY_NAME  += ( 'Enterprise', 'Enterprise-A' )
appends the two pairings to the existent set of mappings.

CAUTION: Use of the assignment operator, ''='', instead of the append operator, ''+='', destroys any previous name-ID definitions for a kernel variable.



As of release N53, the SPICE Toolkit provides the user the functionality to override or mask any name/ID mapping. Use a BODDEF call or define NAIF_BODY_NAME, NAIF_BODY_CODE assignments from a text kernel to perform a masking operations. Simplistically, the mask functionality provides the user the option of mapping multiple names to the same code.

Name/ID assignments function within a precedence hierarchy, so a lower precedence operation cannot affect previous assignments created by an operation of higher precedence. Kernel pool definitions have the highest precedence, BODDEF definitions next, and finally the default definitions. The order of assignments is significant.

                                    Highest precedence
                                   (1) Kernel pool final assignment
                             (2) Kernel pool initial assignment
                       (3) A ``boddef'' call final assignment
                 (4) A ``boddef'' call initial assignment
           (5) The default mappings final assignment
     (6) The default mappings initial assignment
     Lowest precedence
Example 1:

Assign the name 'x' (lower case) to ID 1000 with BODDEF:

      CALL BODDEF( 'x', 1000 )
A call to BODC2N with 1000 as the input ID:

      CALL BODC2N( 1000, NAME, FOUND )
returns the name 'x'. The BODN2C calls:

      CALL BODN2C( 'x', CODE, FOUND )
both return the ID as 1000. Note the case insensitivity of the name input.

Now a demo of simple masking functionality. Assign a new name to ID 1000:

      CALL BODDEF( 'Y', 1000 )
so the BODN2C call

returns an ID of 1000. In a similar manner, the BODC2N call:

      CALL BODC2N( 1000, NAME, FOUND )
returns the name 'Y'. Still, the code assigned to 'x' persists within SPICE as the call:

      CALL BODN2C( 'x', CODE, FOUND )
also returns ID 1000. If we reassign 'Y' to a different ID:

      CALL BODDEF( 'Y', 1001 )
then make a BODC2N call with 1000 as the input ID:

      CALL BODC2N( 1000, NAME, FOUND )
the routine returns the name 'x'. We assigned an ID to 'x', masked it with another name, then demasked it by reassigning the masking name, 'Y'.

If a BODDEF assigns an existing name to an existing code, that assignment takes precedence.

Example 2:

returns a code value 514. Likewise

      CALL BODC2N( 514, NAME, FOUND )
returns a name of 'THEBE'. Yet the name '1979J2' also maps to code 514, but with lower precedence.

The BODDEF call:

      CALL BODDEF( '1979J2', 514 )
places the '1979J2' <-> 514 mapping at the top of the precedence list, so:

      CALL BODC2N( 514, NAME, FOUND )
returns the name '1979J2'. Note, 'THEBE' still resolves to 514.

In those cases where a kernel pool assignment overrides a BODDEF, the BODDEF mapping 'reappears' when an UNLOAD, KCLEAR or CLPOOL call clears the kernel pool mappings.

Example 3:

Execute a BODDEF call:

      CALL BODDEF( 'vehicle2', -1010 )
A BODC2N call:

      CALL BODC2N( -1010, NAME, FOUND )
returns the name 'vehicle2' as expected. If you then load the name/ID kernel body.ker:

      NAIF_BODY_NAME = ( 'vehicle1' )
      NAIF_BODY_CODE = ( -1010      )
with FURNSH:

      CALL FURNSH( 'body.ker' )
the BODC2N call:

      CALL BODC2N( -1010, NAME, FOUND )
returns 'vehicle1' since the kernel assignment take precedence over the BODDEF assignment.

The name/ID map state:

       -1010    -> vehicle1
       vehicle1 -> -1010
       vehicle2 -> -1010
Now, unload the body kernel:

      CALL UNLOAD( 'body.ker' )
The BODDEF assignment resumes highest precedence.

      CALL BODC2N( -1010, NAME, FOUND )
The call returns 'vehicle2' for the name.

CAUTION: Please understand a CLPOOL or KCLEAR call deletes all mapping assignments defined through the kernel pool. No similar clear functionality exists to clear BODDEF. BODDEF assignments persist unless explicitly overridden.


NAIF Object ID numbers

In theory, a unique integer can be assigned to each body in the solar system, including interplanetary spacecraft. SPICE uses integer codes instead of names to refer to ephemeris bodies for three reasons.

    1. Space

    Integer codes are smaller than alphanumeric names.

    2. Uniqueness

    The names of some satellites conflict with the names of some asteroids and comets. Also, some satellites are commonly referred to by names other than those approved by the IAU.

    3. Context

    The type of a body (barycenter, planet, satellite, comet, asteroid, or spacecraft) and the system to which it belongs (Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, or Pluto) can be recovered algorithmically from the integer code assigned to a body. This is not generally true for names.



The smallest positive codes are reserved for the Sun and planetary barycenters:

      NAIF ID     NAME
      ________    ____________________
      0           'SOLAR_SYSTEM_BARYCENTER'
      0           'SSB'
      0           'SOLAR SYSTEM BARYCENTER'
      1           'MERCURY_BARYCENTER'
      1           'MERCURY BARYCENTER'
      2           'VENUS_BARYCENTER'
      2           'VENUS BARYCENTER'
      3           'EARTH_BARYCENTER'
      3           'EMB'
      3           'EARTH MOON BARYCENTER'
      3           'EARTH-MOON BARYCENTER'
      3           'EARTH BARYCENTER'
      4           'MARS_BARYCENTER'
      4           'MARS BARYCENTER'
      5           'JUPITER_BARYCENTER'
      5           'JUPITER BARYCENTER'
      6           'SATURN_BARYCENTER'
      6           'SATURN BARYCENTER'
      7           'URANUS_BARYCENTER'
      7           'URANUS BARYCENTER'
      8           'NEPTUNE_BARYCENTER'
      8           'NEPTUNE BARYCENTER'
      9           'PLUTO_BARYCENTER'
      9           'PLUTO BARYCENTER'
      10          'SUN'
For those planets without moons, Mercury and Venus, the barycenter location coincides with the body center of mass. However do not infer you may interchange use of the planet barycenter ID and the planet ID. A barycenter has no radii, right ascension/declination of the pole axis, etc. Use the planet ID when referring to a planet or any property of that planet.


Planets and Satellites

Planets have ID codes of the form P99, where P is 1, ..., 9 (the planetary ID); a planet is always considered to be the 99th satellite of its own barycenter, e.g. Jupiter is body number 599. Natural satellites have ID codes of the form

           PNN, where
                  P  is  1, ..., 9
              and NN is 01, ... 98

           PXNNN, where
                  P   is    1, ...,  9,
                  X   is    0  or    5,
              and NNN is  001, ... 999
        Codes with X = 5 are provisional.
e.g. Ananke, the 12th satellite of Jupiter (JXII), is body number 512. (Note the fragments of comet Shoemaker Levy 9 are exceptions to this rule.)

      NAIF ID     NAME                    IAU NUMBER
      ________    ____________________    __________
      199         'MERCURY'
      299         'VENUS'
      399         'EARTH'
      301         'MOON'
      499         'MARS'
      401         'PHOBOS'                MI
      402         'DEIMOS'                MII
      599         'JUPITER'
      501         'IO'                    JI
      502         'EUROPA'                JII
      503         'GANYMEDE'              JIII
      504         'CALLISTO'              JIV
      505         'AMALTHEA'              JV
      506         'HIMALIA'               JVI
      507         'ELARA'                 JVII
      508         'PASIPHAE'              JVIII
      509         'SINOPE'                JIX
      510         'LYSITHEA'              JX
      511         'CARME'                 JXI
      512         'ANANKE'                JXII
      513         'LEDA'                  JXIII
      514         'THEBE'                 JXIV
      515         'ADRASTEA'              JXV
      516         'METIS'                 JXVI
      517         'CALLIRRHOE'            JXVII
      518         'THEMISTO'              JXVIII
      519         'MEGACLITE'             JXIX
      520         'TAYGETE'               JXX
      521         'CHALDENE'              JXXI
      522         'HARPALYKE'             JXXII
      523         'KALYKE'                JXXIII
      524         'IOCASTE'               JXXIV
      525         'ERINOME'               JXXV
      526         'ISONOE'                JXXVI
      527         'PRAXIDIKE'             JXXVII
      528         'AUTONOE'               JXXVIII
      529         'THYONE'                JXXIX
      530         'HERMIPPE'              JXXX
      531         'AITNE'                 JXXXI
      532         'EURYDOME'              JXXXII
      533         'EUANTHE'               JXXXIII
      534         'EUPORIE'               JXXXIV
      535         'ORTHOSIE'              JXXXV
      536         'SPONDE'                JXXXVI
      537         'KALE'                  JXXXVII
      538         'PASITHEE'              JXXXVIII
      539         'HEGEMONE'
      540         'MNEME'
      541         'AOEDE'
      542         'THELXINOE'
      543         'ARCHE'
      544         'KALLICHORE'
      545         'HELIKE'
      546         'CARPO'
      547         'EUKELADE'
      548         'CYLLENE'
      549         'KORE'
      550         'HERSE'
      553         'DIA'
      699         'SATURN'
      601         'MIMAS'                 SI
      602         'ENCELADUS'             SII
      603         'TETHYS'                SIII
      604         'DIONE'                 SIV
      605         'RHEA'                  SV
      606         'TITAN'                 SVI
      607         'HYPERION'              SVII
      608         'IAPETUS'               SVIII
      609         'PHOEBE'                SIX
      610         'JANUS'                 SX
      611         'EPIMETHEUS'            SXI
      612         'HELENE'                SXII
      613         'TELESTO'               SXIII
      614         'CALYPSO'               SXIV
      615         'ATLAS'                 SXV
      616         'PROMETHEUS'            SXVI
      617         'PANDORA'               SXVII
      618         'PAN'                   SXVIII
      619         'YMIR'                  SXIX
      620         'PAALIAQ'               SXX
      621         'TARVOS'                SXXI
      622         'IJIRAQ'                SXXII
      623         'SUTTUNGR'              SXXIII
      624         'KIVIUQ'                SXXIV
      625         'MUNDILFARI'            SXXV
      626         'ALBIORIX'              SXXVI
      627         'SKATHI'                SXXVII
      628         'ERRIAPUS'              SXXVIII
      629         'SIARNAQ'               SXXIX
      630         'THRYMR'                SXXX
      631         'NARVI'                 SXXXI
      632         'METHONE'               SXXXII
      633         'PALLENE'               SXXXIII
      634         'POLYDEUCES'            SXXXIV
      635         'DAPHNIS'
      636         'AEGIR'
      637         'BEBHIONN'
      638         'BERGELMIR'
      639         'BESTLA'
      640         'FARBAUTI'
      641         'FENRIR'
      642         'FORNJOT'
      643         'HATI'
      644         'HYRROKKIN'
      645         'KARI'
      646         'LOGE'
      647         'SKOLL'
      648         'SURTUR'
      649         'ANTHE'
      650         'JARNSAXA'
      651         'GREIP'
      652         'TARQEQ'
      653         'AEGAEON'
      799         'URANUS'
      701         'ARIEL'                 UI
      702         'UMBRIEL'               UII
      703         'TITANIA'               UIII
      704         'OBERON'                UIV
      705         'MIRANDA'               UV
      706         'CORDELIA'              UVI
      707         'OPHELIA'               UVII
      708         'BIANCA'                UVIII
      709         'CRESSIDA'              UIX
      710         'DESDEMONA'             UX
      711         'JULIET'                UXI
      712         'PORTIA'                UXII
      713         'ROSALIND'              UXIII
      714         'BELINDA'               UXIV
      715         'PUCK'                  UXV
      716         'CALIBAN'               UXVI
      717         'SYCORAX'               UXVII
      718         'PROSPERO'              UXVIII
      719         'SETEBOS'               UXIX
      720         'STEPHANO'              UXX
      721         'TRINCULO'              UXXI
      722         'FRANCISCO'
      723         'MARGARET'
      724         'FERDINAND'
      725         'PERDITA'
      726         'MAB'
      727         'CUPID'
      899         'NEPTUNE'
      801         'TRITON'                NI
      802         'NEREID'                NII
      803         'NAIAD'                 NIII
      804         'THALASSA'              NIV
      805         'DESPINA'               NV
      806         'GALATEA'               NVI
      807         'LARISSA'               NVII
      808         'PROTEUS'               NVIII
      809         'HALIMEDE'
      810         'PSAMATHE'
      811         'SAO'
      812         'LAOMEDEIA'
      813         'NESO'
      999         'PLUTO'
      901         'CHARON'
      902         'NIX'
      903         'HYDRA'
      904         'KERBEROS'
      905         'STYX'



THE SPICE convention uses negative integers as spacecraft ID codes. The code assigned to interplanetary spacecraft is normally the negative of the code assigned to the same spacecraft by JPL's Deep Space Network (DSN) as determined the NASA control authority at Goddard Space Flight Center.

The current SPICE vehicle code assignments:

      NAIF ID     NAME
      ________    ____________________
      -1          'GEOTAIL'
      -3          'MOM'
      -3          'MARS ORBITER MISSION'
      -5          'AKATSUKI'
      -5          'VCO'
      -5          'PLC'
      -5          'PLANET-C'
      -6          'P6'
      -6          'PIONEER-6'
      -7          'P7'
      -7          'PIONEER-7'
      -8          'WIND'
      -12         'VENUS ORBITER'
      -12         'P12'
      -12         'PIONEER 12'
      -12         'LADEE'
      -13         'POLAR'
      -18         'MGN'
      -18         'MAGELLAN'
      -18         'LCROSS'
      -20         'P8'
      -20         'PIONEER-8'
      -21         'SOHO'
      -23         'P10'
      -23         'PIONEER-10'
      -24         'P11'
      -24         'PIONEER-11'
      -25         'LP'
      -25         'LUNAR PROSPECTOR'
      -27         'VK1'
      -27         'VIKING 1 ORBITER'
      -28         'JUPITER ICY MOONS EXPLORER'
      -28         'JUICE'
      -29         'STARDUST'
      -29         'SDU'
      -29         'NEXT'
      -30         'VK2'
      -30         'VIKING 2 ORBITER'
      -30         'DS-1'
      -31         'VG1'
      -31         'VOYAGER 1'
      -32         'VG2'
      -32         'VOYAGER 2'
      -33         'NEOS'
      -33         'NEO SURVEYOR'
      -37         'HYB2'
      -37         'HAYABUSA 2'
      -37         'HAYABUSA2'
      -39         'LUNAH-MAP'
      -40         'CLEMENTINE'
      -41         'MEX'
      -41         'MARS EXPRESS'
      -43         'IMAP'
      -44         'BEAGLE2'
      -44         'BEAGLE 2'
      -45         'JNSA'
      -45         'JANUS_A'
      -46         'MS-T5'
      -46         'SAKIGAKE'
      -47         'PLANET-A'
      -47         'SUISEI'
      -47         'GNS'
      -47         'GENESIS'
      -48         'HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE'
      -48         'HST'
      -49         'LUCY'
      -53         'MARS PATHFINDER'
      -53         'MPF'
      -53         'MARS ODYSSEY'
      -53         'MARS SURVEYOR 01 ORBITER'
      -55         'ULYSSES'
      -57         'LUNAR ICECUBE'
      -58         'VSOP'
      -58         'HALCA'
      -59         'RADIOASTRON'
      -61         'JUNO'
      -62         'EMM'
      -62         'EMIRATES MARS MISSION'
      -64         'ORX'
      -64         'OSIRIS-REX'
      -65         'MCOA'
      -65         'MARCO-A'
      -66         'VEGA 1'
      -66         'MCOB'
      -66         'MARCO-B'
      -67         'VEGA 2'
      -68         'MMO'
      -68         'BEPICOLOMBO MMO'
      -72         'JNSB'
      -72         'JANUS_B'
      -74         'MRO'
      -74         'MARS RECON ORBITER'
      -76         'CURIOSITY'
      -76         'MSL'
      -76         'MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY'
      -77         'GLL'
      -77         'GALILEO ORBITER'
      -78         'GIOTTO'
      -79         'SPITZER'
      -79         'SIRTF'
      -81         'CASSINI ITL'
      -82         'CAS'
      -82         'CASSINI'
      -84         'PHOENIX'
      -85         'LRO'
      -85         'LUNAR RECON ORBITER'
      -86         'CH1'
      -86         'CHANDRAYAAN-1'
      -90         'CASSINI SIMULATION'
      -93         'NEAR'
      -94         'MO'
      -94         'MARS OBSERVER'
      -94         'MGS'
      -94         'MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR'
      -95         'MGS SIMULATION'
      -96         'PARKER SOLAR PROBE'
      -96         'SPP'
      -96         'SOLAR PROBE PLUS'
      -97         'TOPEX/POSEIDON'
      -98         'NEW HORIZONS'
      -107        'TRMM'
      -112        'ICE'
      -116        'MARS POLAR LANDER'
      -116        'MPL'
      -117        'EDL DEMONSTRATOR MODULE'
      -117        'EDM'
      -117        'EXOMARS 2016 EDM'
      -119        'MARS_ORBITER_MISSION_2'
      -119        'MOM2'
      -121        'MPO'
      -121        'BEPICOLOMBO MPO'
      -127        'MARS CLIMATE ORBITER'
      -127        'MCO'
      -130        'MUSES-C'
      -130        'HAYABUSA'
      -131        'SELENE'
      -131        'KAGUYA'
      -135        'DART'
      -140        'EPOCH'
      -140        'DIXI'
      -140        'EPOXI'
      -142        'TERRA'
      -142        'EOS-AM1'
      -143        'TRACE GAS ORBITER'
      -143        'TGO'
      -143        'EXOMARS 2016 TGO'
      -144        'SOLO'
      -144        'SOLAR ORBITER'
      -146        'LUNAR-A'
      -148        'DFLY'
      -148        'DRAGONFLY'
      -150        'CASSINI PROBE'
      -150        'HUYGENS PROBE'
      -150        'CASP'
      -151        'AXAF'
      -151        'CHANDRA'
      -152        'CH2O'
      -152        'CHANDRAYAAN-2 ORBITER'
      -153        'CH2L'
      -153        'CHANDRAYAAN-2 LANDER'
      -154        'AQUA'
      -155        'KPLO'
      -156        'ADITYA'
      -156        'ADIT'
      -159        'EURC'
      -159        'EUROPA CLIPPER'
      -164        'LUNAR FLASHLIGHT'
      -165        'MAP'
      -166        'IMAGE'
      -168        'PERSEVERANCE'
      -168        'MARS 2020'
      -168        'MARS2020'
      -168        'M2020'
      -170        'JWST'
      -170        'JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE'
      -172        'EXM RSP SCC'
      -172        'EXM SPACECRAFT COMPOSITE'
      -172        'EXOMARS SCC'
      -173        'EXM RSP SP'
      -173        'EXM SURFACE PLATFORM'
      -173        'EXOMARS SP'
      -174        'EXM RSP RM'
      -174        'EXM ROVER'
      -174        'EXOMARS ROVER'
      -177        'GRAIL-A'
      -178        'PLANET-B'
      -178        'NOZOMI'
      -181        'GRAIL-B'
      -183        'CLUSTER 1'
      -185        'CLUSTER 2'
      -188        'MUSES-B'
      -189        'NSYT'
      -189        'INSIGHT'
      -190        'SIM'
      -194        'CLUSTER 3'
      -196        'CLUSTER 4'
      -197        'EXOMARS_LARA'
      -197        'LARA'
      -198        'INTEGRAL'
      -198        'NASA-ISRO SAR MISSION'
      -198        'NISAR'
      -200        'CONTOUR'
      -202        'MAVEN'
      -203        'DAWN'
      -205        'SMAP'
      -210        'LICIA'
      -210        'LICIACUBE'
      -212        'STV51'
      -213        'STV52'
      -214        'STV53'
      -226        'ROSETTA'
      -227        'KEPLER'
      -228        'GLL PROBE'
      -228        'GALILEO PROBE'
      -234        'STEREO AHEAD'
      -235        'STEREO BEHIND'
      -236        'MESSENGER'
      -238        'SMART1'
      -238        'SM1'
      -238        'S1'
      -238        'SMART-1'
      -239        'MMX'
      -240        'SLIM'
      -242        'LUNAR TRAILBLAZER'
      -243        'VIPER'
      -248        'VEX'
      -248        'VENUS EXPRESS'
      -253        'OPPORTUNITY'
      -253        'MER-1'
      -254        'SPIRIT'
      -254        'MER-2'
      -255        'PSYC'
      -301        'HELIOS 1'
      -302        'HELIOS 2'
      -362        'RADIATION BELT STORM PROBE A'
      -362        'RBSP_A'
      -363        'RADIATION BELT STORM PROBE B'
      -363        'RBSP_B'
      -500        'RSAT'
      -500        'SELENE Relay Satellite'
      -500        'SELENE Rstar'
      -500        'Rstar'
      -502        'VSAT'
      -502        'SELENE VLBI Radio Satellite'
      -502        'SELENE VRAD Satellite'
      -502        'SELENE Vstar'
      -502        'Vstar'
      -550        'MARS-96'
      -550        'M96'
      -550        'MARS 96'
      -550        'MARS96'
      -652        'MERCURY TRANSFER MODULE'
      -652        'MTM'
      -652        'BEPICOLOMBO MTM'
      -750        'SPRINT-A'


Earth Orbiting Spacecraft.

If an Earth orbiting spacecraft lacks a DSN identification code, the NAIF ID is derived from the tracking ID assigned to it by NORAD via:

      NAIF ID = -100000 - NORAD ID code
For example, NORAD assigned the code 15427 to the NOAA 9 spacecraft. This code corresponds to the NAIF ID -115427.


Comet Shoemaker Levy 9

In July, 1992 Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 passed close enough to the planet Jupiter that it was torn apart by gravitational tidal forces. As a result it became a satellite of Jupiter. However, in July 1994 the remnants of Shoemaker Levy 9 collided with Jupiter. Consequently, the fragments existed as satellites of Jupiter for only two years. These fragments were given the NAIF ID's listed below. Unfortunately, there have been two competing conventions selected for identifying the fragments of the comet. In one convention the fragments have been assigned numbers 1 through 21. In the second convention the fragments have been assigned letters A through W (with I and O unused). To add to the confusion, the ordering for the numbers is reversed from the letter ordering. Fragment 21 corresponds to letter A; fragment 20 to letter B and so on. Fragment A was the first of the fragments to collide with Jupiter; fragment W was the last to collide with Jupiter.

The original fragments P and Q subdivided further creating the fragments P2 and Q1.

      NAIF ID     NAME                    SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9 FRAGMENT
      ________    ____________________    _________________________
      50000001    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-W'    FRAGMENT 1
      50000002    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-V'    FRAGMENT 2
      50000003    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-U'    FRAGMENT 3
      50000004    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-T'    FRAGMENT 4
      50000005    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-S'    FRAGMENT 5
      50000006    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-R'    FRAGMENT 6
      50000007    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-Q'    FRAGMENT 7
      50000008    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-P'    FRAGMENT 8
      50000009    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-N'    FRAGMENT 9
      50000010    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-M'    FRAGMENT 10
      50000011    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-L'    FRAGMENT 11
      50000012    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-K'    FRAGMENT 12
      50000013    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-J'    FRAGMENT 13
      50000014    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-H'    FRAGMENT 14
      50000015    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-G'    FRAGMENT 15
      50000016    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-F'    FRAGMENT 16
      50000017    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-E'    FRAGMENT 17
      50000018    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-D'    FRAGMENT 18
      50000019    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-C'    FRAGMENT 19
      50000020    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-B'    FRAGMENT 20
      50000021    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-A'    FRAGMENT 21
      50000022    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-Q1'   FRAGMENT 7A
      50000023    'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9-P2'   FRAGMENT 8B



ID codes for periodic comets begin at 1000001 and indefinitely continue in sequence. (The current numbering scheme assumes no need for more than one million comet ID codes.) For several years NAIF maintained a list of comets and NAIF ID codes in this document, and also coded in Toolkit software. But as the rate of discovery picked up pace at the same time that new Toolkit releases slowed down, this list has grown out of date. We decided to leave the last version of the list in this document, and note that one can find the NAIF ID code for any named periodic comet, and vice-versa, by using a webpage managed by JPL's Solar System Dynamics Group:
Note that the partial listing shown below has an alphabetic ordering through ID 1000111, after which new ID codes were assigned in the order of discovery.

Finally, note that Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 is included in this list (ID code 1000130) though it is no longer a comet, periodic or otherwise. It was an identified periodic comet prior to its breakup, which accounts for its inclusion in this list.

      NAIF ID     NAME
      ________    ____________________
      1000001     'AREND'
      1000002     'AREND-RIGAUX'
      1000003     'ASHBROOK-JACKSON'
      1000004     'BOETHIN'
      1000005     'BORRELLY'
      1000006     'BOWELL-SKIFF'
      1000007     'BRADFIELD'
      1000008     'BROOKS 2'
      1000009     'BRORSEN-METCALF'
      1000010     'BUS'
      1000011     'CHERNYKH'
      1000012     '67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO (1969 R1)'
      1000012     'CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO'
      1000013     'CIFFREO'
      1000014     'CLARK'
      1000015     'COMAS SOLA'
      1000016     'CROMMELIN'
      1000017     'D''ARREST'
      1000018     'DANIEL'
      1000019     'DE VICO-SWIFT'
      1000020     'DENNING-FUJIKAWA'
      1000021     'DU TOIT 1'
      1000022     'DU TOIT-HARTLEY'
      1000023     'DUTOIT-NEUJMIN-DELPORTE'
      1000024     'DUBIAGO'
      1000025     'ENCKE'
      1000026     'FAYE'
      1000027     'FINLAY'
      1000028     'FORBES'
      1000029     'GEHRELS 1'
      1000030     'GEHRELS 2'
      1000031     'GEHRELS 3'
      1000032     'GIACOBINI-ZINNER'
      1000033     'GICLAS'
      1000034     'GRIGG-SKJELLERUP'
      1000035     'GUNN'
      1000036     'HALLEY'
      1000037     'HANEDA-CAMPOS'
      1000038     'HARRINGTON'
      1000039     'HARRINGTON-ABELL'
      1000040     'HARTLEY 1'
      1000041     'HARTLEY 2'
      1000042     'HARTLEY-IRAS'
      1000043     'HERSCHEL-RIGOLLET'
      1000044     'HOLMES'
      1000045     'HONDA-MRKOS-PAJDUSAKOVA'
      1000046     'HOWELL'
      1000047     'IRAS'
      1000048     'JACKSON-NEUJMIN'
      1000049     'JOHNSON'
      1000050     'KEARNS-KWEE'
      1000051     'KLEMOLA'
      1000052     'KOHOUTEK'
      1000053     'KOJIMA'
      1000054     'KOPFF'
      1000055     'KOWAL 1'
      1000056     'KOWAL 2'
      1000057     'KOWAL-MRKOS'
      1000058     'KOWAL-VAVROVA'
      1000059     'LONGMORE'
      1000060     'LOVAS 1'
      1000061     'MACHHOLZ'
      1000062     'MAURY'
      1000063     'NEUJMIN 1'
      1000064     'NEUJMIN 2'
      1000065     'NEUJMIN 3'
      1000066     'OLBERS'
      1000067     'PETERS-HARTLEY'
      1000068     'PONS-BROOKS'
      1000069     'PONS-WINNECKE'
      1000070     'REINMUTH 1'
      1000071     'REINMUTH 2'
      1000072     'RUSSELL 1'
      1000073     'RUSSELL 2'
      1000074     'RUSSELL 3'
      1000075     'RUSSELL 4'
      1000076     'SANGUIN'
      1000077     'SCHAUMASSE'
      1000078     'SCHUSTER'
      1000079     'SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 1'
      1000080     'SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 2'
      1000081     'SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 3'
      1000082     'SHAJN-SCHALDACH'
      1000083     'SHOEMAKER 1'
      1000084     'SHOEMAKER 2'
      1000085     'SHOEMAKER 3'
      1000086     'SINGER-BREWSTER'
      1000087     'SLAUGHTER-BURNHAM'
      1000088     'SMIRNOVA-CHERNYKH'
      1000089     'STEPHAN-OTERMA'
      1000090     'SWIFT-GEHRELS'
      1000091     'TAKAMIZAWA'
      1000092     'TAYLOR'
      1000093     'TEMPEL_1'
      1000093     'TEMPEL 1'
      1000094     'TEMPEL 2'
      1000095     'TEMPEL-TUTTLE'
      1000096     'TRITTON'
      1000097     'TSUCHINSHAN 1'
      1000098     'TSUCHINSHAN 2'
      1000099     'TUTTLE'
      1000100     'TUTTLE-GIACOBINI-KRESAK'
      1000101     'VAISALA 1'
      1000102     'VAN BIESBROECK'
      1000103     'VAN HOUTEN'
      1000104     'WEST-KOHOUTEK-IKEMURA'
      1000105     'WHIPPLE'
      1000106     'WILD 1'
      1000107     'WILD 2'
      1000108     'WILD 3'
      1000109     'WIRTANEN'
      1000110     'WOLF'
      1000111     'WOLF-HARRINGTON'
      1000112     'LOVAS 2'
      1000113     'URATA-NIIJIMA'
      1000114     'WISEMAN-SKIFF'
      1000115     'HELIN'
      1000116     'MUELLER'
      1000117     'SHOEMAKER-HOLT 1'
      1000118     'HELIN-ROMAN-CROCKETT'
      1000119     'HARTLEY 3'
      1000120     'PARKER-HARTLEY'
      1000121     'HELIN-ROMAN-ALU 1'
      1000122     'WILD 4'
      1000123     'MUELLER 2'
      1000124     'MUELLER 3'
      1000125     'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 1'
      1000126     'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 2'
      1000127     'HOLT-OLMSTEAD'
      1000128     'METCALF-BREWINGTON'
      1000129     'LEVY'
      1000130     'SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9'
      1000131     'HYAKUTAKE'
      1000132     'HALE-BOPP'
      1003228     'C/2013 A1'
      1003228     'SIDING SPRING'



According to the original schema, NAIF ID codes for permanently numbered asteroids registered in the JPL Solar System Dynamics (SSD) Group database are 7-digit numbers determined using the algorithm

      NAIF ID code = 2000000 + Permanent Asteroid Number
limited to the 2000001 to 2999999 range and allowing up to 1 million asteroids.

For newly discovered asteroids with provisional numbers SSD internally uses 7-digit numbers determined via the algorithm

      NAIF ID code = 3000000 + Provisional Asteroid Number
limited to the 3000001 to 3999999 range and also allowing up to 1 million asteroids.

Given the need to accommodate many more asteroids expected to be discovered by surveys coming on-line in the near future and the desire to encode in the NAIF ID codes the roles of individual asteroids and barycenters in binary and multi-body asteroid systems in a way similar to planetary systems, in 2019 SSD and NAIF agreed to extend the original schema.

Under the extended schema all permanently numbered singular asteroids have 8-digit NAIF ID codes with the original 7-digit IDs still allowed to be used. Such asteroids are assigned NAIF ID codes using the algorithm

      NAIF ID code = 20000000 + Permanent Asteroid Number
limited to the 20000001 to 49999999 range and allowing up to 30 million asteroids.

For asteroid systems with two or more bodies the 8-digit NAIF ID code represents the barycenter. Individual satellites have a prepended number 1 through 8, while the primary body uses the ``last available'' prefix 9, resulting in 9-digit NAIF ID codes. This is analogous to the planetary system approach except a single extra number is added as a prefix rather than two numbers added as a suffix. In the case of ID codes presented by strings, a 0 prefix could be added to the ID of the barycenter, if printing out uniform 9 digits is desired.

For newly discovered singular asteroids and asteroid system barycenters with provisional numbers NAIF ID codes are also 8-digit numbers determined via the algorithm:

      NAIF ID code = 50000000 + Provisional Asteroid Number
limited to the 50000001 to 99999999 range and allowing up to 50 million asteroids, with the same prefix rule used to derive the 9-digit IDs for the primary and satellite bodies in multi-body systems.

For example, asteroid Yeomans (2956) has NAIF ID number 2002956 according to the original schema and NAIF ID number 20002956 according to the extended schema, while asteroids Didymos (65803) and its satellite Dimorphos can be accommodated only using the extended schema with IDs 920065803 and 120065803, and Didymos system barycenter with ID 20065803.

The complete list of asteroids is far too numerous to include in this document. However, below we include the NAIF ID codes for a few of the most commonly requested asteroids. One may look up the NAIF ID code for any named asteroid, or vice-versa, by using a webpage managed by JPL's Solar System Dynamics Group:
      NAIF ID     NAME
      ________    ____________________
      2000001     'CERES'
      2000002     'PALLAS'
      2000004     'VESTA'
      2000016     'PSYCHE'
      2000021     'LUTETIA'
      2000052     '52_EUROPA'
      2000052     '52 EUROPA'
      2000216     'KLEOPATRA'
      2000253     'MATHILDE'
      2000433     'EROS'
      2000511     'DAVIDA'
      2002867     'STEINS'
      2004015     'WILSON-HARRINGTON'
      2004179     'TOUTATIS'
      2009969     '1992KD'
      2009969     'BRAILLE'
      2025143     'ITOKAWA'
      2101955     'BENNU'
      2162173     'RYUGU'
      2431010     'IDA'
      2431011     'DACTYL'
      2486958     'ARROKOTH'
      9511010     'GASPRA'
     20000617     'PATROCLUS_BARYCENTER'
     20000617     'PATROCLUS BARYCENTER'
     20003548     'EURYBATES_BARYCENTER'
     20003548     'EURYBATES BARYCENTER'
     20011351     'LEUCUS'
     20015094     'POLYMELE'
     20021900     'ORUS'
     20052246     'DONALDJOHANSON'
     20065803     'DIDYMOS_BARYCENTER'
     20065803     'DIDYMOS BARYCENTER'
    120000617     'MENOETIUS'
    120003548     'QUETA'
    120065803     'DIMORPHOS'
    920000617     'PATROCLUS'
    920003548     'EURYBATES'
    920065803     'DIDYMOS'
There are three exceptions to the rule---asteroids Gaspra, Ida and Ida's satellite Dactyl, visited by the Galileo spacecraft. The ID codes for these asteroids were determined using an older numbering convention now abandoned by the SPICE system.


Ground Stations.

The SPICE system accommodates ephemerides for tracking stations and landed spacecraft. Currently five earth tracking station sites are supported: Goldstone, Canberra, Madrid, Usuda, and Parkes. Note that these refer only to the general geographic location of the various tracking sites. IDs for the individual antennas at a given site are assigned when more than one antenna is present.

The following NAIF ID codes are assigned.

      NAIF ID     NAME
      ________    ____________________
      398989      'NOTO'
      398990      'NEW NORCIA'
      399001      'GOLDSTONE'
      399002      'CANBERRA'
      399003      'MADRID'
      399004      'USUDA'
      399005      'DSS-05'
      399005      'PARKES'
      399012      'DSS-12'
      399013      'DSS-13'
      399014      'DSS-14'
      399015      'DSS-15'
      399016      'DSS-16'
      399017      'DSS-17'
      399023      'DSS-23'
      399024      'DSS-24'
      399025      'DSS-25'
      399026      'DSS-26'
      399027      'DSS-27'
      399028      'DSS-28'
      399033      'DSS-33'
      399034      'DSS-34'
      399035      'DSS-35'
      399036      'DSS-36'
      399042      'DSS-42'
      399043      'DSS-43'
      399045      'DSS-45'
      399046      'DSS-46'
      399049      'DSS-49'
      399053      'DSS-53'
      399054      'DSS-54'
      399055      'DSS-55'
      399056      'DSS-56'
      399061      'DSS-61'
      399063      'DSS-63'
      399064      'DSS-64'
      399065      'DSS-65'
      399066      'DSS-66'
      399069      'DSS-69'


Inertial and Non-inertial Reference Frames

Please refer to the Frames Required Reading document, frames.req, for detailed information on the implementation of reference frames in the SPICE system.


Spacecraft Clocks.

The ID code used to identify the on-board clock of a spacecraft (spacecraft clock or SCLK) in SPICE software is the same as the ID code of the spacecraft. This convention assumes that only one clock is used on-board a spacecraft to control all observations and spacecraft functions. However, missions are envisioned in which instruments may have clocks not tightly coupled to the primary spacecraft control clock. When this situation occurs, the correspondence between clocks and spacecraft will be broken and more than one clock ID code will be associated with a mission. It is anticipated that the I-kernel will contain the information needed to associate the appropriate clock with a particular instrument.



With regards to a spacecraft, the term ``instrument'' means a science instrument or vehicle structure to which the concept of orientation is applicable.

NAIF, in cooperation with the science teams from each flight project, assigns ID codes to a vehicle instrument. The instruments are simply enumerated via some project convention to arrive at an ''instrument number.'' The NAIF ID code for an instrument derives from the instrument number via the function:

      NAIF instrument code = (s/c code)*(1000) - instrument number
This allows for 1000 instrument assignments on board a spacecraft. An application of the instrument ID concept applied to the Voyager 2 vehicle (ID -32):

    -32000 -> Instrument Scan Platform

    -32001 -> ISSNA (Imaging science narrow angle camera)

    -32002 -> ISSWA (Imaging science wide angle camera)

    -32003 -> PPS (Photopolarimeter)

    -32004 -> UVSAG (Ultraviolet Spectrometer, Airglow port)

    -32005 -> UVSOCC (Ultraviolet Spectrometer, Occultation port)

    -32006 -> IRIS (Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer and Radiometer)

Use SPICE text kernels (usually Instrument or Frames kernels) to define the instrument name/ID mappings.