gfpa_c |

## Procedurevoid gfpa_c ( ConstSpiceChar * target, ConstSpiceChar * illmn, ConstSpiceChar * abcorr, ConstSpiceChar * obsrvr, ConstSpiceChar * relate, SpiceDouble refval, SpiceDouble adjust, SpiceDouble step, SpiceInt nintvls, SpiceCell * cnfine, SpiceCell * result ) ## AbstractDetermine time intervals for which a specified constraint on the phase angle between an illumination source, a target, and observer body centers is met. ## Required_ReadingGF NAIF_IDS SPK TIME WINDOWS ## KeywordsEVENT GEOMETRY EPHEMERIS SEARCH WINDOW ## Brief_I/OVariable I/O Description --------------- --- ------------------------------------------------ SPICE_GF_CNVTOL P Convergence tolerance target I Name of the target body. illmn I Name of the illuminating body. abcorr I Aberration correction flag. obsrvr I Name of the observing body. relate I Relational operator. refval I Reference value. adjust I Adjustment value for absolute extrema searches. step I Step size used for locating extrema and roots. nintvls I Workspace window interval count. cnfine I-O SPICE window to which the search is confined. result O SPICE window containing results. ## Detailed_Inputtarget is the name of a target body. Optionally, you may supply a string containing the integer ID code for the object. For example both "MOON" and "301" are legitimate strings that indicate the Moon is the target body. Case and leading or trailing blanks are not significant in the string `target'. illmn the string name of the illuminating body. This will normally be "SUN" but the algorithm can use any ephemeris object Case and leading or trailing blanks are not significant in the string `illmn'. abcorr indicates the aberration corrections to be applied to the observer-target position vector to account for one-way light time and stellar aberration. Any aberration correction accepted by the SPICE routine spkezr_c is accepted here. See the header of spkezr_c for a detailed description of the aberration correction options. For convenience, the allowed aberation options are listed below: "NONE" Apply no correction. "LT" "Reception" case: correct for one-way light time using a Newtonian formulation. "LT+S" "Reception" case: correct for one-way light time and stellar aberration using a Newtonian formulation. "CN" "Reception" case: converged Newtonian light time correction. "CN+S" "Reception" case: converged Newtonian light time and stellar aberration corrections. Note that this routine accepts only reception mode aberration corrections. Case and leading or trailing blanks are not significant in the string `abcorr'. obsrvr is the name of the observing body. Optionally, you may supply a string containing the integer ID code for the object. For example both "MOON" and "301" are legitimate strings that indicate the Moon is the observer. Case and leading or trailing blanks are not significant in the string `obsrvr'. relate is a relational operator used to define a constraint on the phase angle. The result window found by this routine indicates the time intervals where the constraint is satisfied. Supported values of `relate' and corresponding meanings are shown below: ">" The phase angle value is greater than the reference value REFVAL. "=" The phase angle value is equal to the reference value REFVAL. "<" The phase angle value is less than the reference value REFVAL. "ABSMAX" The phase angle value is at an absolute maximum. "ABSMIN" The phase angle value is at an absolute minimum. "LOCMAX" The phase angle value is at a local maximum. "LOCMIN" The phase angle value is at a local minimum. `relate' may be used to specify an "adjusted" absolute extremum constraint: this requires the phase angle to be within a specified offset relative to an absolute extremum. The argument `adjust' (described below) is used to specify this offset. Local extrema are considered to exist only in the interiors of the intervals comprising the confinement window: a local extremum cannot exist at a boundary point of the confinement window. Case and leading or trailing blanks are not significant in the string `relate'. `refval' is the reference value used together with the argument `relate' to define an equality or inequality to be satisfied by the phase angle. See the discussion of `relate' above for further information. The units of `refval' are radians. adjust is a parameter used to modify searches for absolute extrema: when `relate' is set to "ABSMAX" or "ABSMIN" and `adjust' is set to a positive value, ## Detailed_Outputcnfine is the input confinement window, updated if necessary so the control area of its data array indicates the window's size and cardinality. The window data are unchanged. result is the window of intervals, contained within the confinement window `cnfine', on which the specified phase angle constraint is satisfied. The endpoints of the time intervals comprising `result' are interpreted as seconds past J2000 TDB. If `result' is non-empty on input, its contents will be discarded before ## ParametersSPICE_GF_CNVTOL is the convergence tolerance used for finding endpoints of the intervals comprising the result window. SPICE_GF_CNVTOL is used to determine when binary searches for roots should terminate: when a root is bracketed within an interval of length SPICE_GF_CNVTOL, the root is considered to have been found. The accuracy, as opposed to precision, of roots found by this routine depends on the accuracy of the input data. In most cases, the accuracy of solutions will be inferior to their precision. SPICE_GF_CNVTOL is declared in the header file SpiceGF.h. ## Exceptions1) In order for this routine to produce correct results, the step size must be appropriate for the problem at hand. Step sizes that are too large may cause this routine to miss roots; step sizes that are too small may cause this routine to run unacceptably slowly and in some cases, find spurious roots. This routine does not diagnose invalid step sizes, except that if the step size is non-positive, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 2) Due to numerical errors, in particular, - Truncation error in time values - Finite tolerance value - Errors in computed geometric quantities it is *normal* for the condition of interest to not always be satisfied near the endpoints of the intervals comprising the result window. The result window may need to be contracted slightly by the caller to achieve desired results. The SPICE window routine wncond_c can be used to contract the result window. 3) If an error (typically cell overflow) occurs while performing window arithmetic, the error will be diagnosed by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 4) If the relational operator `relate' is not recognized, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 5) If the aberration correction specifier contains an unrecognized value, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 6) If `adjust' is negative, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 7) If either of the input body names do not map to NAIF ID codes, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 8) If required ephemerides or other kernel data are not available, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 9) If the workspace interval count is less than 1, the error SPICE(VALUEOUTOFRANGE) will be signaled. 10) If the required amount of workspace memory cannot be allocated, the error SPICE(MALLOCFAILURE) will be signaled. 11) If the output SPICE window `result' has insufficient capacity to contain the number of intervals on which the specified geometric condition is met, the error will be diagnosed by a routine in the call tree of this routine. If the result window has size less than 2, the error SPICE(INVALIDDIMENSION) will be signaled by this routine. 12) If any input string argument pointer is null, the error SPICE(NULLPOINTER) will be signaled. 13) If any input string argument is empty, the error SPICE(EMPTYSTRING) will be signaled. 14) If either input cell has type other than SpiceDouble, the error SPICE(TYPEMISMATCH) is signaled. 15) An error signals from a routine in the call tree of this routine for any transmit mode aberration correction. ## FilesAppropriate SPK and PCK kernels must be loaded by the calling program before this routine is called. The following data are required: - SPK data: the calling application must load ephemeris data for the targets, observer, and any intermediate objects in a chain connecting the targets and observer that cover the time period specified by the window CNFINE. If aberration corrections are used, the states of target and observer relative to the solar system barycenter must be calculable from the available ephemeris data. Typically ephemeris data are made available by loading one or more SPK files using furnsh_c. Kernel data are normally loaded once per program run, NOT every time this routine is called. ## ParticularsILLMN OBS ILLMN as seen * / from TARG at | / ET - LT. | / >|..../< phase angle | / . | / . | / . * TARG as seen from OBS SEP . TARG at ET . / / * This routine determines if the caller-specified constraint condition on the geometric event (phase angle) is satisfied for any time intervals within the confinement window `cnfine'. If one or more such time intervals exist, those intervals are added to the `result' window. This routine provides a simpler, but less flexible interface than does the routine gfevnt_c for conducting searches for illuminator-target-observer phase angle value events. Applications that require support for progress reporting, interrupt handling, non-default step or refinement functions should call gfevnt_c rather than this routine. Below we discuss in greater detail aspects of this routine's solution process that are relevant to correct and efficient use of this routine in user applications. The Search Process ================== Regardless of the type of constraint selected by the caller, this routine starts the search for solutions by determining the time periods, within the confinement window, over which the phase angle function is monotone increasing and monotone decreasing. Each of these time periods is represented by a SPICE window. Having found these windows, all of the phase angle function's local extrema within the confinement window are known. Absolute extrema then can be found very easily. Within any interval of these "monotone" windows, there will be at most one solution of any equality constraint. Since the boundary of the solution set for any inequality constraint is contained in the union of - the set of points where an equality constraint is met - the boundary points of the confinement window the solutions of both equality and inequality constraints can be found easily once the monotone windows have been found. Step Size ========= The monotone windows (described above) are found using a two-step search process. Each interval of the confinement window is searched as follows: first, the input step size is used to determine the time separation at which the sign of the rate of change of phase angle will be sampled. Starting at the left endpoint of an interval, samples will be taken at each step. If a change of sign is found, a root has been bracketed; at that point, the time at which the time derivative of the phase angle is zero can be found by a refinement process, for example, using a binary search. Note that the optimal choice of step size depends on the lengths of the intervals over which the phase angle function is monotone: the step size should be shorter than the shortest of these intervals (within the confinement window). The optimal step size is *not* necessarily related to the lengths of the intervals comprising the result window. For example, if the shortest monotone interval has length 10 days, and if the shortest result window interval has length 5 minutes, a step size of 9.9 days is still adequate to find all of the intervals in the result window. In situations like this, the technique of using monotone windows yields a dramatic efficiency improvement over a state-based search that simply tests at each step whether the specified constraint is satisfied. The latter type of search can miss solution intervals if the step size is longer than the shortest solution interval. Having some knowledge of the relative geometry of the target, illumination source, and observer can be a valuable aid in picking a reasonable step size. In general, the user can compensate for lack of such knowledge by picking a very short step size; the cost is increased computation time. Note that the step size is not related to the precision with which the endpoints of the intervals of the result window are computed. That precision level is controlled by the convergence tolerance. Convergence Tolerance ===================== As described above, the root-finding process used by this routine involves first bracketing roots and then using a search process to locate them. "Roots" include times when extrema are attained and times when the geometric quantity function is equal to a reference value or adjusted extremum. All endpoints of the intervals comprising the result window are either endpoints of intervals of the confinement window or roots. Once a root has been bracketed, a refinement process is used to narrow down the time interval within which the root must lie. This refinement process terminates when the location of the root has been determined to within an error margin called the "convergence tolerance." The convergence tolerance used by this routine is set via the parameter SPICE_GF_CNVTOL. The value of SPICE_GF_CNVTOL is set to a "tight" value so that the tolerance doesn't limit the accuracy of solutions found by this routine. In general the accuracy of input data will be the limiting factor. The user may change the convergence tolerance from the default SPICE_GF_CNVTOL value by calling the routine gfstol_c, e.g. gfstol_c( tolerance value in seconds ) Call gfstol_c prior to calling this routine. All subsequent searches will use the updated tolerance value. Searches over time windows of long duration may require use of larger tolerance values than the default: the tolerance must be large enough so that it, when added to or subtracted from the confinement window's lower and upper bounds, yields distinct time values. Setting the tolerance tighter than SPICE_GF_CNVTOL is unlikely to be useful, since the results are unlikely to be more accurate. Making the tolerance looser will speed up searches somewhat, since a few convergence steps will be omitted. However, in most cases, the step size is likely to have a much greater effect on processing time than would the convergence tolerance. The Confinement Window ====================== The simplest use of the confinement window is to specify a time interval within which a solution is sought. However, the confinement window can, in some cases, be used to make searches more efficient. Sometimes it's possible to do an efficient search to reduce the size of the time period over which a relatively slow search of interest must be performed. See the "CASCADE" example program in gf.req for a demonstration. ## ExamplesThe numerical results shown for these examples may differ across platforms. The results depend on the SPICE kernels used as input, the compiler and supporting libraries, and the machine specific arithmetic implementation. Use the meta-kernel shown below to load the required SPICE kernels. KPL/MK File name: standard.tm This meta-kernel is intended to support operation of SPICE example programs. The kernels shown here should not be assumed to contain adequate or correct versions of data required by SPICE-based user applications. In order for an application to use this meta-kernel, the kernels referenced here must be present in the user's current working directory. The names and contents of the kernels referenced by this meta-kernel are as follows: File name Contents --------- -------- de421.bsp Planetary ephemeris pck00009.tpc Planet orientation and radii naif0009.tls Leapseconds \begindata KERNELS_TO_LOAD = ( 'de421.bsp', 'pck00009.tpc', 'naif0009.tls' ) \begintext Example: Determine the time windows from December 1, 2006 UTC to January 31, 2007 UTC for which the sun-moon-earth configuration phase angle satisfies the relation conditions with respect to a reference value of .57598845 radians (the phase angle at January 1, 2007 00:00:00.000 UTC, 33.001707 degrees). Also determine the time windows corresponding to the local maximum and minimum phase angles, and the absolute maximum and minimum phase angles during the search interval. The configuration defines the sun as the illuminator, the moon as the target, and the earth as the observer. #include <stdio.h> #include "SpiceUsr.h" #define TIMFMT "YYYY MON DD HR:MN:SC.###" #define NINTVL 5000 #define TIMLEN 41 #define NLOOPS 7 int main() { /. Local variables ./ SpiceChar begstr [ TIMLEN ]; SpiceChar endstr [ TIMLEN ]; SPICEDOUBLE_CELL ( cnfine, 2 ); SPICEDOUBLE_CELL ( result, NINTVL*2 ); SpiceDouble adjust; SpiceDouble et0; SpiceDouble et1; SpiceDouble phaseq; SpiceDouble refval; SpiceDouble start; SpiceDouble step; SpiceDouble stop; SpiceInt i; SpiceInt j; /. Define the values for target, observer, illuminator, and aberration correction. ./ ConstSpiceChar * target = "moon"; ConstSpiceChar * illmn = "sun"; ConstSpiceChar * abcorr = "lt+s"; ConstSpiceChar * obsrvr = "earth"; ConstSpiceChar * relate [NLOOPS] = { "=", "<", ">", "LOCMIN", "ABSMIN", "LOCMAX", "ABSMAX", }; /. Load kernels. ./ furnsh_c ( "standard.tm" ); /. Store the time bounds of our search interval in the confinement window. ./ str2et_c ( "2006 DEC 01", &et0 ); str2et_c ( "2007 JAN 31", &et1 ); wninsd_c ( et0, et1, &cnfine ); /. Search using a step size of 1 day (in units of seconds). The reference value is 0.57598845 radians. We're not using the adjustment feature, so we set ADJUST to zero. ./ step = spd_c(); refval = 0.57598845; adjust = 0.0; for ( j = 0; j < NLOOPS; j++ ) { printf ( "Relation condition: %s\n", relate[j] ); /. Perform the search. The SPICE window `result' contains the set of times when the condition is met. ./ ## Restrictions1) The kernel files to be used by this routine must be loaded (normally using the CSPICE routine furnsh_c) before this routine is called. ## Literature_ReferencesNone. ## Author_and_InstitutionN.J. Bachman (JPL) E.D. Wright (JPL) ## Version-CSPICE Version 1.0.0, 15-JUL-2014 (EDW) (NJB) ## Index_EntriesGF phase angle search |

Wed Apr 5 17:54:36 2017