pgrrec_c

 Procedure Abstract Required_Reading Keywords Brief_I/O Detailed_Input Detailed_Output Parameters Exceptions Files Particulars Examples Restrictions Literature_References Author_and_Institution Version Index_Entries

#### Procedure

```   void pgrrec_c ( ConstSpiceChar  * body,
SpiceDouble       lon,
SpiceDouble       lat,
SpiceDouble       alt,
SpiceDouble       re,
SpiceDouble       f,
SpiceDouble       rectan )

```

#### Abstract

```
Convert planetographic coordinates to rectangular coordinates.
```

```
KERNEL
NAIF_IDS
PCK
```

```
CONVERSION
COORDINATES
GEOMETRY
MATH

```

#### Brief_I/O

```
VARIABLE  I/O  DESCRIPTION
--------  ---  --------------------------------------------------
body       I   Body with which coordinate system is associated.
lon        I   Planetographic longitude of a point (radians).
lat        I   Planetographic latitude of a point (radians).
alt        I   Altitude of a point above reference spheroid.
re         I   Equatorial radius of the reference spheroid.
f          I   Flattening coefficient.
rectan     O   Rectangular coordinates of the point.
```

#### Detailed_Input

```
body       Name of the body with which the planetographic
coordinate system is associated.

`body' is used by this routine to look up from the
kernel pool the prime meridian rate coefficient giving
the body's spin sense.  See the Files and Particulars

lon        Planetographic longitude of the input point.  This is
the angle between the prime meridian and the meridian
containing the input point.  For bodies having
prograde (aka direct) rotation, the direction of
increasing longitude is positive west:  from the +X
axis of the rectangular coordinate system toward the
-Y axis.  For bodies having retrograde rotation, the
direction of increasing longitude is positive east:
from the +X axis toward the +Y axis.

The earth, moon, and sun are exceptions:
planetographic longitude is measured positive east for
these bodies.

The default interpretation of longitude by this
and the other planetographic coordinate conversion
routines can be overridden; see the discussion in
Particulars below for details.

Longitude is measured in radians. On input, the range
of longitude is unrestricted.

lat        Planetographic latitude of the input point.  For a
point P on the reference spheroid, this is the angle
between the XY plane and the outward normal vector at
P. For a point P not on the reference spheroid, the
planetographic latitude is that of the closest point
to P on the spheroid.

Latitude is measured in radians.  On input, the
range of latitude is unrestricted.

alt        Altitude of point above the reference spheroid.
Units of `alt' must match those of  `re'.

re         Equatorial radius of a reference spheroid.  This
spheroid is a volume of revolution:  its horizontal
cross sections are circular.  The shape of the
spheroid is defined by an equatorial radius  `re' and
a polar radius `rp'.  Units of  `re' must match those of
`alt'.

f          Flattening coefficient =

(re-rp) / re

where `rp' is the polar radius of the spheroid, and the
units of `rp' match those of  `re'.
```

#### Detailed_Output

```
rectan     The rectangular coordinates of the input point.  See
the discussion below in the Particulars header section
for details.

The units associated with `rectan' are those associated
with the inputs `alt' and `re'.
```

```
None.
```

#### Exceptions

```
1) If the body name `body' cannot be mapped to a NAIF ID code,
and if `body' is not a string representation of an integer,
the error SPICE(IDCODENOTFOUND) will be signaled.

2) If the kernel variable

BODY<ID code>_PGR_POSITIVE_LON

is present in the kernel pool but has a value other
than one of

'EAST'
'WEST'

the error SPICE(INVALIDOPTION) will be signaled.  Case
and blanks are ignored when these values are interpreted.

3) If polynomial coefficients for the prime meridian of `body'
are not available in the kernel pool, and if the kernel
variable BODY<ID code>_PGR_POSITIVE_LON is not present in
the kernel pool, the error SPICE(MISSINGDATA) will be signaled.

4) If the equatorial radius is non-positive, the error
SPICE(VALUEOUTOFRANGE) is signaled.

5) If the flattening coefficient is greater than or equal to one,
the error SPICE(VALUEOUTOFRANGE) is signaled.

6) The error SPICE(EMPTYSTRING) is signaled if the input
string `body' does not contain at least one character, since the
input string cannot be converted to a Fortran-style string in
this case.

7) The error SPICE(NULLPOINTER) is signaled if the input string
pointer `body' is null.
```

#### Files

```
This routine expects a kernel variable giving body's prime
meridian angle as a function of time to be available in the
file.  The required kernel variable is named

BODY<body ID>_PM

where <body ID> represents a string containing the NAIF integer
ID code for `body'.  For example, if `body' is "JUPITER", then
the name of the kernel variable containing the prime meridian
angle coefficients is

BODY599_PM

See the PCK Required Reading for details concerning the prime
meridian kernel variable.

The optional kernel variable

BODY<body ID>_PGR_POSITIVE_LON

variable is present in the kernel pool, the prime meridian
coefficients for `body' are not required by this routine. See the
Particulars section below for details.
```

#### Particulars

```
Given the planetographic coordinates of a point, this routine
returns the body-fixed rectangular coordinates of the point.  The
body-fixed rectangular frame is that having the X-axis pass
through the 0 degree latitude 0 degree longitude direction, the
Z-axis pass through the 90 degree latitude direction, and the
Y-axis equal to the cross product of the unit Z-axis and X-axis
vectors.

The planetographic definition of latitude is identical to the
planetodetic (also called "geodetic" in SPICE documentation)
definition. In the planetographic coordinate system, latitude is
defined using a reference spheroid.  The spheroid is
point P on the spheroid, latitude is defined as the angle between
the X-Y plane and the outward surface normal at P.  For a point P
off the spheroid, latitude is defined as the latitude of the
nearest point to P on the spheroid.  Note if P is an interior
point, for example, if P is at the center of the spheroid, there
may not be a unique nearest point to P.

In the planetographic coordinate system, longitude is defined
using the spin sense of the body.  Longitude is positive to the
west if the spin is prograde and positive to the east if the spin
is retrograde.  The spin sense is given by the sign of the first
degree term of the time-dependent polynomial for the body's prime
meridian Euler angle "W":  the spin is retrograde if this term is
negative and prograde otherwise.  For the sun, planets, most
natural satellites, and selected asteroids, the polynomial
expression for W may be found in a SPICE PCK kernel.

The earth, moon, and sun are exceptions: planetographic longitude
is measured positive east for these bodies.

If you wish to override the default sense of positive longitude
for a particular body, you can do so by defining the kernel
variable

BODY<body ID>_PGR_POSITIVE_LON

where <body ID> represents the NAIF ID code of the body. This
variable may be assigned either of the values

'WEST'
'EAST'

For example, you can have this routine treat the longitude
of the earth as increasing to the west using the kernel
variable assignment

BODY399_PGR_POSITIVE_LON = 'WEST'

Normally such assignments are made by placing them in a text

The definition of this kernel variable controls the behavior of
the CSPICE planetographic routines

pgrrec_c
recpgr_c
dpgrdr_c
drdpgr_c

It does not affect the other CSPICE coordinate conversion
routines.
```

#### Examples

```
Numerical results shown for this example may differ between
platforms as the results depend on the SPICE kernels used as
input and the machine specific arithmetic implementation.

1) Find the rectangular coordinates of the point having Mars
planetographic coordinates:

longitude = 90 degrees west
latitude  = 45 degrees north
altitude  = 300 km

#include <stdio.h>
#include "SpiceUsr.h"

int main()
{
/.
Local variables
./
SpiceDouble             alt;
SpiceDouble             f;
SpiceDouble             lat;
SpiceDouble             lon;
SpiceDouble             re;
SpiceDouble             rectan ;
SpiceDouble             rp;

SpiceInt                n;

/.
Load a PCK file containing a triaxial
ellipsoidal shape model and orientation
data for Mars.
./
furnsh_c ( "pck00008.tpc" );

/.
Look up the radii for Mars.  Although we
omit it here, we could first call badkpv_c
to make sure the variable BODY499_RADII
has three elements and numeric data type.
If the variable is not present in the kernel
pool, bodvrd_c will signal an error.
./

/.
Compute flattening coefficient.
./
f   =  ( re - rp ) / re;

/.
Do the conversion.  Note that we must provide
./
lon =  90.0  * rpd_c();
lat =  45.0  * rpd_c();
alt =   3.e2;

pgrrec_c ( "mars", lon, lat, alt, re, f, rectan );

printf ( "\n"
"Planetographic coordinates:\n"
"\n"
"  Longitude (deg)        = %18.9e\n"
"  Latitude  (deg)        = %18.9e\n"
"  Altitude  (km)         = %18.9e\n"
"\n"
"Ellipsoid shape parameters:\n"
"\n"
"  Equatorial radius (km) = %18.9e\n"
"  Polar radius      (km) = %18.9e\n"
"  Flattening coefficient = %18.9e\n"
"\n"
"Rectangular coordinates:\n"
"\n"
"  X (km)                 = %18.9e\n"
"  Y (km)                 = %18.9e\n"
"  Z (km)                 = %18.9e\n"
"\n",
lon / rpd_c(),
lat / rpd_c(),
alt,
re,
rp,
f,
rectan,
rectan,
rectan              );

return ( 0 );
}

Output from this program should be similar to the following
(rounding and formatting differ across platforms):

Planetographic coordinates:

Longitude (deg)        =    9.000000000e+01
Latitude  (deg)        =    4.500000000e+01
Altitude  (km)         =    3.000000000e+02

Ellipsoid shape parameters:

Flattening coefficient =    5.886007556e-03

Rectangular coordinates:

X (km)                 =    1.604650025e-13
Y (km)                 =   -2.620678915e+03
Z (km)                 =    2.592408909e+03

2) Below is a table showing a variety of rectangular coordinates
and the corresponding Mars planetographic coordinates.  The
values are computed using the reference spheroid having radii

Note:  the values shown above may not be current or suitable

Corresponding rectangular and planetographic coordinates are
listed to three decimal places.

rectan    rectan   rectan    lon        lat         alt
------------------------------------------------------------------
3397.000      0.000      0.000       0.000      0.000       0.000
-3397.000      0.000      0.000     180.000      0.000       0.000
-3407.000      0.000      0.000     180.000      0.000      10.000
-3387.000      0.000      0.000     180.000      0.000     -10.000
0.000  -3397.000      0.000      90.000      0.000       0.000
0.000   3397.000      0.000     270.000      0.000       0.000
0.000      0.000   3375.000       0.000     90.000       0.000
0.000      0.000  -3375.000       0.000    -90.000       0.000
0.000      0.000      0.000       0.000     90.000   -3375.000

3)  Below we show the analogous relationships for the earth,

Note the change in longitudes for points on the +/- Y axis
for the earth vs the Mars values.

rectan    rectan   rectan    lon        lat         alt
------------------------------------------------------------------
6378.140      0.000      0.000       0.000      0.000       0.000
-6378.140      0.000      0.000     180.000      0.000       0.000
-6388.140      0.000      0.000     180.000      0.000      10.000
-6368.140      0.000      0.000     180.000      0.000     -10.000
0.000  -6378.140      0.000     270.000      0.000       0.000
0.000   6378.140      0.000      90.000      0.000       0.000
0.000      0.000   6356.750       0.000     90.000       0.000
0.000      0.000  -6356.750       0.000    -90.000       0.000
0.000      0.000      0.000       0.000     90.000   -6356.750

```

```
None.
```

```
None.
```

#### Author_and_Institution

```
C.H. Acton      (JPL)
N.J. Bachman    (JPL)
H.A. Neilan     (JPL)
B.V. Semenov    (JPL)
W.L. Taber      (JPL)
```

#### Version

```
-CSPICE Version 1.0.0, 26-DEC-2004 (CHA) (NJB) (HAN) (BVS) (WLT)
```

#### Index_Entries

```
convert planetographic to rectangular coordinates
```
`Wed Apr  5 17:54:40 2017`