gfrr_c |

## Procedurevoid gfrr_c ( ConstSpiceChar * target, ConstSpiceChar * abcorr, ConstSpiceChar * obsrvr, ConstSpiceChar * relate, SpiceDouble refval, SpiceDouble adjust, SpiceDouble step, SpiceInt nintvls, SpiceCell * cnfine, SpiceCell * result ) ## AbstractDetermine time intervals for which a specified constraint on the observer-target range rate is met. ## Required_ReadingGF NAIF_IDS SPK TIME WINDOWS ## KeywordsEVENT GEOMETRY EPHEMERIS SEARCH WINDOW ## Brief_I/OVariable I/O Description -------- --- -------------------------------------------------- SPICE_GF_CNVTOL P Convergence tolerance target I Name of the target body. abcorr I Aberration correction flag. obsrvr I Name of the observing body. relate I Relational operator. refval I Reference value. adjust I Adjustment value for absolute extrema searches. step I Step size used for locating extrema and roots. nintvls I Workspace window interval count. cnfine I-O SPICE window to which the search is confined. result O SPICE window containing results. ## Detailed_Inputtarget is the name of a target body. The target body is an ephemeris object; its trajectory is given by SPK data. The string `target' is case-insensitive, and leading and trailing blanks in `target' are not significant. Optionally, you may supply a string containing the integer ID code for the object. For example both "MOON" and "301" are legitimate strings that indicate the Moon is the target body. The target and observer define a position vector which points from the observer to the target; the time derivative length of this vector is the "range rate" that serves as the subject of the search performed by this routine. abcorr indicates the aberration corrections to be applied to the observer-target state vector to account for one-way light time and stellar aberration. Any aberration correction accepted by the SPICE routine spkezr_c is accepted here. See the header of spkezr_c for a detailed description of the aberration correction options. For convenience, the options are listed below: "NONE" Apply no correction. "LT" "Reception" case: correct for one-way light time using a Newtonian formulation. "LT+S" "Reception" case: correct for one-way light time and stellar aberration using a Newtonian formulation. "CN" "Reception" case: converged Newtonian light time correction. "CN+S" "Reception" case: converged Newtonian light time and stellar aberration corrections. "XLT" "Transmission" case: correct for one-way light time using a Newtonian formulation. "XLT+S" "Transmission" case: correct for one-way light time and stellar aberration using a Newtonian formulation. "XCN" "Transmission" case: converged Newtonian light time correction. "XCN+S" "Transmission" case: converged Newtonian light time and stellar aberration corrections. Case and blanks are not significant in the string `abcorr'. obsrvr is the name of the observing body. The observing body is an ephemeris object; its trajectory is given by SPK data. `obsrvr' is case-insensitive, and leading and trailing blanks in `obsrvr' are not significant. Optionally, you may supply a string containing the integer ID code for the object. For example both "MOON" and "301" are legitimate strings that indicate the Moon is the observer. relate is a relational operator used to define a constraint on observer-target range rate. The result window found by this routine indicates the time intervals where the constraint is satisfied. Supported values of `relate' and corresponding meanings are shown below: ">" Distance is greater than the reference value `refval'. "=" Distance is equal to the reference value `refval'. "<" Distance is less than the reference value `refval'. "ABSMAX" Distance is at an absolute maximum. "ABSMIN" Distance is at an absolute minimum. "LOCMAX" Distance is at a local maximum. "LOCMIN" Distance is at a local minimum. The caller may indicate that the region of interest is the set of time intervals where the quantity is within a specified distance of an absolute extremum. The argument `adjust' (described below) is used to specify this distance. Local extrema are considered to exist only in the interiors of the intervals comprising the confinement window: a local extremum cannot exist at a boundary point of the confinement window. Case is not significant in the string `relate'. refval is the reference value used together with the argument `relate' to define an equality or inequality to be satisfied by the range rate between the specified target and observer. See the discussion of `relate' above for further information. The units of `refval' are km/sec. adjust is a parameter used to modify searches for absolute extrema: when `relate' is set to "ABSMAX" or "ABSMIN" and `adjust' is set to a positive value, gfdist_c will find times when the observer-target range rate is within `adjust' km/sec of the specified extreme value. If `adjust' is non-zero and a search for an absolute minimum `min' is performed, the result window contains time intervals when the observer-target range rate has values between `min' and min+adjust. If the search is for an absolute maximum `max', the corresponding range is from max-adjust to `max'. `adjust' is not used for searches for local extrema, equality or inequality conditions. step is the step size to be used in the search. `step' must be short enough for a search using this step size to locate the time intervals where the specified range rate function is monotone increasing or decreasing. However, `step' must not be *too* short, or the search will take an unreasonable amount of time. The choice of `step' affects the completeness but not the precision of solutions found by this routine; the precision is controlled by the convergence tolerance. See the discussion of the parameter SPICE_GF_CNVTOL for details. `step' has units of TDB seconds. nintvls is a parameter specifying the number of intervals that can be accommodated by each of the dynamically allocated windows used internally by this routine. `nintvls' should be at least as large as the number of intervals within the search region on which the specified range rate function is monotone increasing or decreasing. See the Examples section below for code examples illustrating the use of this parameter. cnfine is a SPICE window that confines the time period over which the specified search is conducted. `cnfine' may consist of a single interval or a collection of intervals. In some cases the confinement window can be used to greatly reduce the time period that must be searched for the desired solution. See the Particulars section below for further discussion. See the Examples section below for a code example that shows how to create a confinement window. ## Detailed_Outputcnfine is the input confinement window, updated if necessary so the control area of its data array indicates the window's size and cardinality. The window data are unchanged. result is the window of intervals, contained within the confinement window `cnfine', on which the specified constraint is satisfied. If `result' is non-empty on input, its contents will be discarded before ## ParametersSPICE_GF_CNVTOL is the convergence tolerance used for finding endpoints of the intervals comprising the result window. SPICE_GF_CNVTOL is used to determine when binary searches for roots should terminate: when a root is bracketed within an interval of length SPICE_GF_CNVTOL, the root is considered to have been found. The accuracy, as opposed to precision, of roots found by this routine depends on the accuracy of the input data. In most cases, the accuracy of solutions will be inferior to their precision. SPICE_GF_CNVTOL is declared in the header file SpiceGF.h. ## Exceptions1) In order for this routine to produce correct results, the step size must be appropriate for the problem at hand. Step sizes that are too large may cause this routine to miss roots; step sizes that are too small may cause this routine to run unacceptably slowly and in some cases, find spurious roots. This routine does not diagnose invalid step sizes, except that if the step size is non-positive, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 2) Due to numerical errors, in particular, - Truncation error in time values - Finite tolerance value - Errors in computed geometric quantities it is *normal* for the condition of interest to not always be satisfied near the endpoints of the intervals comprising the result window. The result window may need to be contracted slightly by the caller to achieve desired results. The SPICE window routine wncond_c can be used to contract the result window. 3) If an error (typically cell overflow) occurs while performing window arithmetic, the error will be diagnosed by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 4) If the relational operator `relate' is not recognized, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 5) If the aberration correction specifier contains an unrecognized value, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 6) If 'adjust' is negative, the error SPICE(VALUEOUTOFRANGE) will signal from a routine in the call tree of this routine. A non-zero value for 'adjust' when 'relate' has any value other than "ABSMIN" or "ABSMAX" causes the error SPICE(INVALIDVALUE) to signal from a routine in the call tree of this routine. 7) If either of the input body names do not map to NAIF ID codes, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 8) If required ephemerides or other kernel data are not available, an error is signaled by a routine in the call tree of this routine. 9) If the workspace interval count is less than 1, the error SPICE(VALUEOUTOFRANGE) will be signaled. 10) If the required amount of workspace memory cannot be allocated, the error SPICE(MALLOCFAILURE) will be signaled. 11) If any input string argument pointer is null, the error SPICE(NULLPOINTER) will be signaled. 12) If any input string argument is empty, the error SPICE(EMPTYSTRING) will be signaled. 13) If either input cell has type other than SpiceDouble, the error SPICE(TYPEMISMATCH) is signaled. ## FilesAppropriate kernels must be loaded by the calling program before this routine is called. The following data are required: - SPK data: ephemeris data for target and observer for the time period defined by the confinement window must be loaded. If aberration corrections are used, the states of target and observer relative to the solar system barycenter must be calculable from the available ephemeris data. Typically ephemeris data are made available by loading one or more SPK files via furnsh_c. In all cases, kernel data are normally loaded once per program run, NOT every time this routine is called. ## ParticularsThis routine determines if the caller-specified constraint condition on the geometric event (range rate) is satisfied for any time intervals within the confinement window 'cnfine'. If one or more such time intervals exist, those intervals are added to the 'result' window. This routine provides a simpler, but less flexible interface than does the routine gfevnt_c for conducting the searches for observer-target range rate value events. Applications that require support for progress reporting, interrupt handling, non-default step or refinement functions, or non-default convergence tolerance should call gfevnt_c rather than this routine. Below we discuss in greater detail aspects of this routine's solution process that are relevant to correct and efficient use of this routine in user applications. The Search Process ================== Regardless of the type of constraint selected by the caller, this routine starts the search for solutions by determining the time periods, within the confinement window, over which the specified range rate function is monotone increasing and monotone decreasing. Each of these time periods is represented by a SPICE window. Having found these windows, all of the range rate function's local extrema within the confinement window are known. Absolute extrema then can be found very easily. Within any interval of these "monotone" windows, there will be at most one solution of any equality constraint. Since the boundary of the solution set for any inequality constraint is contained in the union of - the set of points where an equality constraint is met - the boundary points of the confinement window the solutions of both equality and inequality constraints can be found easily once the monotone windows have been found. Step Size ========= The monotone windows (described above) are found via a two-step search process. Each interval of the confinement window is searched as follows: first, the input step size is used to determine the time separation at which the sign of the rate of change of range rate will be sampled. Starting at the left endpoint of an interval, samples will be taken at each step. If a change of sign is found, a root has been bracketed; at that point, the time at which the range rate is zero can be found by a refinement process, for example, via binary search. Note that the optimal choice of step size depends on the lengths of the intervals over which the range rate function is monotone: the step size should be shorter than the shortest of these intervals (within the confinement window). The optimal step size is *not* necessarily related to the lengths of the intervals comprising the result window. For example, if the shortest monotone interval has length 10 days, and if the shortest result window interval has length 5 minutes, a step size of 9.9 days is still adequate to find all of the intervals in the result window. In situations like this, the technique of using monotone windows yields a dramatic efficiency improvement over a state-based search that simply tests at each step whether the specified constraint is satisfied. The latter type of search can miss solution intervals if the step size is longer than the shortest solution interval. Having some knowledge of the relative geometry of the target and observer can be a valuable aid in picking a reasonable step size. In general, the user can compensate for lack of such knowledge by picking a very short step size; the cost is increased computation time. Note that the step size is not related to the precision with which the endpoints of the intervals of the result window are computed. That precision level is controlled by the convergence tolerance. Convergence Tolerance ===================== As described above, the root-finding process used by this routine involves first bracketing roots and then using a search process to locate them. "Roots" include times when extrema are attained and times when the geometric quantity function is equal to a reference value or adjusted extremum. All endpoints of the intervals comprising the result window are either endpoints of intervals of the confinement window or roots. Once a root has been bracketed, a refinement process is used to narrow down the time interval within which the root must lie. This refinement process terminates when the location of the root has been determined to within an error margin called the "convergence tolerance." The convergence tolerance used by this routine is set via the parameter SPICE_GF_CNVTOL. The value of SPICE_GF_CNVTOL is set to a "tight" value so that the tolerance doesn't limit the accuracy of solutions found by this routine. In general the accuracy of input data will be the limiting factor. The user may change the convergence tolerance from the default SPICE_GF_CNVTOL value by calling the routine gfstol_c, e.g. gfstol_c( tolerance value in seconds ) Call gfstol_c prior to calling this routine. All subsequent searches will use the updated tolerance value. Searches over time windows of long duration may require use of larger tolerance values than the default: the tolerance must be large enough so that it, when added to or subtracted from the confinement window's lower and upper bounds, yields distinct time values. Setting the tolerance tighter than SPICE_GF_CNVTOL is unlikely to be useful, since the results are unlikely to be more accurate. Making the tolerance looser will speed up searches somewhat, since a few convergence steps will be omitted. However, in most cases, the step size is likely to have a much greater effect on processing time than would the convergence tolerance. The Confinement Window ====================== The simplest use of the confinement window is to specify a time interval within which a solution is sought. However, the confinement window can, in some cases, be used to make searches more efficient. Sometimes it's possible to do an efficient search to reduce the size of the time period over which a relatively slow search of interest must be performed. Consider the following example: suppose one wishes to find the times when the range rate between Io and the Earth attains a global minimum over some (lengthy) time interval. There is one local minimum every few days. The required step size for this search must be smaller than the shortest interval on which the range rate is monotone increasing or decreasing; this step size will be less than half the average time between local minima. However, we know that a global minimum can't occur when the Jupiter-Sun-Earth angle is greater than 90 degrees. We can use a step size of a half year to find the time period, within our original time interval, during which this angle is less than 90 degrees; this time period becomes the confinement window for our Earth-Io range rate search. This way we've used a quick (due to the large step size) search to cut out about half of the search period over which we must perform a slower search using a small step size. ## ExamplesThe numerical results shown for these examples may differ across platforms. The results depend on the SPICE kernels used as input, the compiler and supporting libraries, and the machine specific arithmetic implementation. Use the meta-kernel shown below to load the required SPICE kernels. KPL/MK File name: standard.tm This meta-kernel is intended to support operation of SPICE example programs. The kernels shown here should not be assumed to contain adequate or correct versions of data required by SPICE-based user applications. In order for an application to use this meta-kernel, the kernels referenced here must be present in the user's current working directory. The names and contents of the kernels referenced by this meta-kernel are as follows: File name Contents --------- -------- de421.bsp Planetary ephemeris pck00009.tpc Planet orientation and radii naif0009.tls Leapseconds \begindata KERNELS_TO_LOAD = ( 'de421.bsp', 'pck00009.tpc', 'naif0009.tls' ) \begintext Example: Determine the time windows from January 1, 2007 UTC to April 1, 2007 UTC for which the sun-moon range rate satisfies the relation conditions with respect to a reference value of 0.3365 km/s radians (this range rate known to occur within the search interval). Also determine the time windows corresponding to the local maximum and minimum range rate, and the absolute maximum and minimum range rate during the search interval. #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> #include "SpiceUsr.h" #define MAXWIN 20000 #define TIMFMT "YYYY-MON-DD HR:MN:SC.###" #define TIMLEN 41 #define NLOOPS 7 int main( int argc, char **argv ) { /. Create the needed windows. Note, one window consists of two values, so the total number of cell values to allocate is twice the number of intervals. ./ SPICEDOUBLE_CELL ( result, 2*MAXWIN ); SPICEDOUBLE_CELL ( cnfine, 2 ); SpiceDouble begtim; SpiceDouble endtim; SpiceDouble step; SpiceDouble adjust; SpiceDouble refval; SpiceDouble beg; SpiceDouble end; SpiceChar begstr [ TIMLEN ]; SpiceChar endstr [ TIMLEN ]; SpiceChar * target = "MOON"; SpiceChar * abcorr = "NONE"; SpiceChar * obsrvr = "SUN"; SpiceInt count; SpiceInt i; SpiceInt j; ConstSpiceChar * relate [NLOOPS] = { "=", "<", ">", "LOCMIN", "ABSMIN", "LOCMAX", "ABSMAX", }; /. Load kernels. ./ furnsh_c( "standard.tm" ); /. Store the time bounds of our search interval in the cnfine confinement window. ./ str2et_c( "2007 JAN 01", &begtim ); str2et_c( "2007 APR 01", &endtim ); wninsd_c ( begtim, endtim, &cnfine ); /. Search using a step size of 1 day (in units of seconds). The reference value is .3365 km/s. We're not using the adjustment feature, so we set 'adjust' to zero. ./ step = spd_c(); adjust = 0.; refval = .3365; for ( j = 0; j < NLOOPS; j++ ) { printf ( "Relation condition: %s \n", relate[j] ); /. Perform the search. The SPICE window 'result' contains the set of times when the condition is met. ./ ## Restrictions1) The kernel files to be used by this routine must be loaded (normally using the CSPICE routine furnsh_c) before this routine is called. 2) This routine has the side effect of re-initializing the range rate quantity utility package. Callers may themselves need to re-initialize the range rate quantity utility package after calling this routine. ## Literature_ReferencesNone. ## Author_and_InstitutionN.J. Bachman (JPL) E.D. Wright (JPL) ## Version-CSPICE Version 1.0.2, 31-JUL-2014 (EDW) Edit to header, replaced ' character with character " to indicate C strings. Edit to header, correct Required Reading entry eliminating ".REQ" suffix. -CSPICE Version 1.0.1, 28-FEB-2013 (NJB) (EDW) Header was updated to discuss use of gfstol_c. Edit to comments to correct search description. Edits to Example section, proper description of "standard.tm" meta kernel. -CSPICE Version 1.0.0, 26-AUG-2009 (EDW) (NJB) ## Index_EntriesGF range rate search |

Wed Apr 5 17:54:36 2017