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chbder_c

 Procedure Abstract Required_Reading Keywords Brief_I/O Detailed_Input Detailed_Output Parameters Exceptions Files Particulars Examples Restrictions Literature_References Author_and_Institution Version Index_Entries

#### Procedure

```   chbder_c ( Derivatives of a Chebyshev expansion )

void chbder_c ( ConstSpiceDouble * cp,
SpiceInt           degp,
SpiceDouble        x2s[2],
SpiceDouble        x,
SpiceInt           nderiv,
SpiceDouble      * partdp,
SpiceDouble      * dpdxs )

```

#### Abstract

```   Return the value of a polynomial and its first `nderiv'
derivatives, evaluated at the input `x', using the coefficients of
the Chebyshev expansion of the polynomial.
```

```   None.
```

#### Keywords

```   INTERPOLATION
MATH
POLYNOMIAL

```

#### Brief_I/O

```   VARIABLE  I/O  DESCRIPTION
--------  ---  --------------------------------------------------
cp         I   degp+1 Chebyshev polynomial coefficients.
degp       I   Degree of polynomial.
x2s        I   Transformation parameters of polynomial.
x          I   Value for which the polynomial is to be evaluated.
nderiv     I   The number of derivatives to compute.
partdp    I-O  Workspace provided for computing derivatives.
dpdxs      O   Array of the derivatives of the polynomial.
```

#### Detailed_Input

```   cp          is an array of coefficients a polynomial with respect
to the Chebyshev basis. The polynomial to be
evaluated is assumed to be of the form:

cp[degp]*T(degp,s) + cp[degp-1]*T(degp-1,s) + ...

+ cp[1]*T(1,s) + cp[0]*T(0,s)

where T(i,s) is the I'th Chebyshev polynomial
evaluated at a number `s' whose double precision
value lies between -1 and 1. The value of `s' is
computed from the input variables x2s[0], x2s[1]
and `x'.

degp        is the degree of the Chebyshev polynomial to be
evaluated.

x2s         is an array of two parameters. These parameters are
used to transform the domain of the input variable `x'
into the standard domain of the Chebyshev polynomial.
x2s[0] should be a reference point in the domain of
`x'; x2s[1] should be the radius by which points are
allowed to deviate from the reference point and while
remaining within the domain of `x'. The value of
`x' is transformed into the value `s' given by

s = ( x - x2s[0] ) / x2s[1]

Typically x2s[0] is the midpoint of the interval over
which `x' is allowed to vary and x2s[1] is the radius
of the interval.

The main reason for doing this is that a Chebyshev
expansion is usually fit to data over a span
from A to B where A and B are not -1 and 1
respectively. Thus to get the "best fit" the
data was transformed to the interval [-1,1] and
coefficients generated. These coefficients are
not rescaled to the interval of the data so that
the numerical "robustness" of the Chebyshev fit will
not be lost. Consequently, when the "best fitting"
polynomial needs to be evaluated at an intermediate
point, the point of evaluation must be transformed
in the same way that the generating points were
transformed.

x           is the value for which the polynomial is to be
evaluated.

nderiv      is the number of derivatives to be computed by the
routine. `nderiv' should be non-negative.

partdp      is a work space used by the program to compute
all of the desired derivatives. It should be declared
in the calling program as

SpiceDouble       partdp[3 * (nderiv+1)]
```

#### Detailed_Output

```   dpdxs       is an array containing the value of the polynomial and
its derivatives evaluated at `x'.

dpdxs[0] is the value of the polynomial to be evaluated.
It is given by

cp[degp]*T(degp,s) + cp[degp-1]*T(degp-1,s) + ...

+ cp[1]*T(1,s) + cp[0]*T(0,s)

where T(i,s) is the i'th Chebyshev polynomial
evaluated  at a number s = ( x -  x2s[0] )/ x2s[1].

dpdxs(i) is the value of the i'th derivative of the
polynomial at `x' (`i' ranges from 1 to `nderiv'). It is
given by

[i]
(1/x2s[1]^i) ( cp[degp]*T   (degp,s)

[i]
+ cp[degp-1]*T   (degp-1,s)

+ ...

[i]
+ cp[1]*T   (1,s)

[i]
+ cp[0]*T   (0,s) )

where T(k,s) is the k'th Chebyshev polynomial and the
superscript [i] indicates its i'th derivative,
evaluated at the number s = ( x - x2s[0] )/x2s[1].
```

#### Parameters

```   None.
```

#### Exceptions

```   Error free.

1)  No tests are performed for exceptional values (`nderiv'
negative, `degp' negative, etc.). This routine is expected to
be used at a low level in ephemeris evaluations. For that
reason it has been elected as a routine that will not
participate in error handling.
```

#### Files

```   None.
```

#### Particulars

```   This routine computes the value of a Chebyshev polynomial
expansion and the derivatives of the expansion with respect to `x'.
The polynomial is given by

cp[degp]*T(degp,s) + cp[degp-1]*T(degp-1,s) + ...

+ cp[1]*T(1,s) + cp[0]*T(0,s)

where

s  =  ( x - x2s[0] ) / x2s[1]

and

T(i,s) is the i'th Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind
evaluated at `s'.
```

#### Examples

```   The numerical results shown for this example may differ across
platforms. The results depend on the SPICE kernels used as
input, the compiler and supporting libraries, and the machine
specific arithmetic implementation.

1) Depending upon the user's needs, there are 3 routines
available for evaluating Chebyshev polynomials.

chbval_c   for evaluating a Chebyshev polynomial when no
derivatives are desired.

chbint_c   for evaluating a Chebyshev polynomial and its
first derivative.

chbder_c   for evaluating a Chebyshev polynomial and a user
or application dependent number of derivatives.

Of these 3 the one most commonly employed by SPICE software
is chbint_c as it is used to interpolate ephemeris state
vectors; this requires the evaluation of a polynomial
and its derivative. When no derivatives are desired one
should use chbval_c, or when more than one or an unknown
number of derivatives are desired one should use chbder_c.

The code example below illustrates how this routine might
be used to obtain points for plotting a polynomial
and its derivatives.

Example code begins here.

/.
Program chbder_ex1
./
#include <stdio.h>
#include "SpiceUsr.h"

int main( )
{

/.
Local variables.
./
SpiceDouble      cp []  = {  1., 3., 0.5, 1., 0.5, -1., 1. };
SpiceInt         degp   = 6;
SpiceInt         nderiv = 3;
SpiceDouble      x2s[]  = { .5, 3.};
SpiceDouble      x      = 1.;

/.
Dimension partdp as 3 * (nderiv + 1)
./
SpiceDouble      partdp[3 * 4];

/.
Dimension dpdxs as nderiv + 1.
./
SpiceDouble      dpdxs [3+1];

SpiceInt         i;

chbder_c ( cp, degp, x2s, x, nderiv, partdp, dpdxs );

printf( "Value of the polynomial at X=1: %10.6f\n",
dpdxs[0] );

for ( i=1; i<=nderiv; i++ )
{
printf( "   Derivative %i at X=1        : %10.6f\n",
(int)i, dpdxs[i] );
}

return ( 0 );
}

When this program was executed on a Mac/Intel/cc/64-bit
platform, the output was:

Value of the polynomial at X=1:  -0.340878
Derivative 1 at X=1        :   0.382716
Derivative 2 at X=1        :   4.288066
Derivative 3 at X=1        :  -1.514403
```

#### Restrictions

```   1)  The user must be sure that the provided workspace is declared
properly in the calling routine. The proper declaration is:

SpiceInt         nderiv = the desired number of derivatives;
SpiceDouble      partdp[3 * (nderiv + 1)];

If for some reason a parameter is not passed to this routine
in `nderiv', the user should make sure that the value of `nderiv'
is not so large that the work space provided is inadequate.

2)  One needs to be careful that the value

(x-x2s[0]) / x2s[1]

lies between -1 and 1. Otherwise, the routine may fail
spectacularly (for example with a floating point overflow).

3)  While this routine will compute derivatives of the input
polynomial, the user should consider how accurately the
derivatives of the Chebyshev fit, match the derivatives of the
function it approximates.
```

#### Literature_References

```   [1]  W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky and W. Vetterling,
"Numerical Recipes -- The Art of Scientific Computing,"
chapter 5.4, "Recurrence Relations and Clenshaw's Recurrence
Formula," p 161, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

[2]  T. Rivlin, "The Chebyshev Polynomials," Wiley, 1974.

[3]  R. Weast and S. Selby, "CRC Handbook of Tables for
Mathematics," 4th Edition, CRC Press, 1976.
```

#### Author_and_Institution

```   N.J. Bachman        (JPL)
J. Diaz del Rio     (ODC Space)
W.L. Taber          (JPL)
E.D. Wright         (JPL)
```

#### Version

```   -CSPICE Version 1.1.0, 01-NOV-2021 (JDR)

Removed error tracing calls. The function is declared
as error free, therefore these calls are not required.

Updated the header to comply with NAIF standard and correct several
typos. Reformatted example's output.

Removed unnecessary comments from the function's body.

-CSPICE Version 1.0.0, 24-AUG-2015 (EDW) (NJB) (WLT)
```

#### Index_Entries

```   derivatives of a chebyshev expansion
```
`Fri Dec 31 18:41:02 2021`